Keki N Daruwalla: The Poet and Novelist

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KEKI N. DARUWALLA: POET and NOVELIST by ASHA VISWAS. New Delhi: Bahri publications, 2011. 173 pp., Rs. 500 /-, ISBN 978-81-909771-3-5

Keki N. Daruwalla, who has been writing for more than four decades, is a leading name in English poetry Indiana today (p. 31). The uniqueness of his poems has been recognized by critics and fans everywhere. There have been several books about his poetry, original and edited, images, diction, design and point of view, but the last of them by Asha Viswas, dedicated to their students, should be very useful to students and teachers alike.

Viswas Professor, herself a good poet with three volumes of poetry to his credit, is Daruwalla on the same pedestal as Nissim Ezekiel and Jayanta Mahapatra, and he finds a voice more representative than Jayanta Mahapatra and others. I am totally in accordance with it.

Asha considered the nine volumes of poetry and a novel by Keki and appreciates the variety that shows both in form and content (p 34). She also discovers that Keki writes with control over emotions and effectively uses techniques such as the game of words, irony and satire (pp 75-76). She reflects on theme canvas of the poet as inherent to their personal experiences as also its concern by realities often contradictory of indigenous life, diversity of cultural, historical and mythical landscapes and existential realities. To quote Bruce King, Keki Daruwalla write tough poetry with awareness of the “moral ambiguities and irresolvable conflicts of the human condition”.

introductory chapter of Professsor Viswas seeks to define and highlight the modernity and the Indianness of Keki, in addition to its “depth of feeling, economy of language and originality of vision” (cf pp 13-17) conferred upon him “a central place in the modern Indian English poetry.”

in the second chapter, ‘You moorings’, she examines personal life vis-à-vis of the poet the growth of his poetic career since the 1960’s. It is based on his interview with the poet to develop the chapter in addition to reviewing the comments of all her collections, two books of short stories, a novel and an anthology, two decades of Indian poetry: 1960-80. She underlines the poet global perspective, experiences and interests.

in the third chapter, ‘Treatment of the myth in the early poetry of Keki,’ refers to his legendary poems (five in low Orion, thirteen, four in appearance in April at the junction of the rivers) to demonstrate the mind seeks the poet, attitude impetus and eclectic vision. Professor Viswas also uses the techniques of stylistic analysis to interpret some of the early poems of Keki.

the fourth chapter intends to publicize the modernity of the poet, not a moral approach, realism, concern existential, lack of faith in the system and the avoidance of «common response» and «abstract notion». She observes: «»his satire and his iconoclastic approach invigorated its theme as does the speed of his verse and male force. (p. 76)

a discussion of the critical poet in the poems on landscape (ch. 5) intends to show “Maturity of vision” Keki that transmutes the “outside world” in the internal sense (p. 78) and helps you achieve inner peace (p. 81). ASHA Viswas found in the collection “a perfect harmony between impression and expression” to the Sanskrit poets (p 90).

the sixth chapter is a critique of a summer of tigers that provides instances of passion and irony (pp 94-98). With his abilities in stylistic analysis, Asha Viswas tries to highlight the poet “exploration and experimentation” (pp 95, 104) and its sensitivity for “rhythms of speech and its syntactic characteristics and lexical” (pp 98, 114) on the one hand and his love of mythology and the “racial history of the” (pp 99, 102, 111) and its criticism of Pablo Neruda (pp 110-11) , on the other. As points out: “his poetry is better on the mountains, tall grass, seas and rivers. Their attachment to the ritual scene giving Keki is a shot in the poetic vein “. (p. 112)

the seventh chapter deals with the River at night, a “global job” (p. 116). While the search for the poet to stay in landscapes brings you to the world of nature, in the River at night “changes its path of nature to human imagination” (p. 115). Asha Viswas here as Keki Orfeo and down in “the darkest depths of what we call the subconscious and unconscious”. She seems as Daruwalla himself admits that he has here tried diving into the “depths of consciousness and loneliness” (p. 117) which is, in fact, “a defense against time, decay and death” (p. 127). She also discusses some of his sueno-poemas (pp 118-121) and the isla-poemas (pp 125-26) in the volume.

the eighth chapter concerns ninth collection of Keki, the cartographer, registering your trip “both inside and outside.” Here one finds instances of the “subjective and physical, individual and universal fusion in…” (w) a awareness integrated “(p. 128).” ASHA praises his craft in the fusion of history, peoples, nature, religion, biography and vision in “intense reflection” and poetry ‘ speaking outside the still Center of being, the narrative and dramatic voice ‘ (p. 159). Analytical reviews on pp 140-158 should help every serious student to follow Daruwalla poetry in the right spirit.

the last chapter talks about historical novel of Daruwalla pepper and Christ (2009) presenting “a dialectical discourse of clash of interests in the backdrop of trade and religion (p. 161).

the bibliography at the end reflects the years of work that Viswas Professor has created to write the book, taking into account the needs of students both honours and postgraduate researchers and teachers interested in Indian English writing. It is a positive contribution of a teacher of poet see Keki N. Daruwalla with imagination and critical empathy.


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Imperialism and Patriarchy in the Poems of John Donne

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John Donne was an English poet and satirical writer who began writing in the 16TH century. Especially known for its inventive metaphors, blatant use of the language and tonal changes to their works resonate with various cultural topics, patriarchy and imperialism being some of them. By definition the Patriarchate regards the centrality of male authority over all social institutions and imperialism implies and maintenance or creation of unequal relationships based on law, economy and territory between States working on the ideas of domination and subordination. Patriarchy in the poetry of Donne has explicitly to such an extent that critics call him as “misogynist who loathed the bodies of women and despised their minds” John Donne in contrast to his contemporaries, Sir Philip Sidney, and Edmund Spenser was uncomfortable to be in the position of a submissive lover making strenuous efforts to woo his beloved. He rejected the notions prevalent in Petrarch and firmly believes that the consummate love was better than examine. His poetry is characterized by the installation of images that take the reader to wonder in their experience of the art. You can compare with the softness of Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation of the Baroque and Mannerist European techniques. He sought inspiration from Ovid, who represents the love that has been fulfilled and that considers sex a religious experience. On the other hand, Donne seems to exercise an act of use the rhetoric for formulate argumentativeness of their verses with rhymes jugged that resemble speech informal. Donne basically uses his genius to create his poetry coupled with notions of the time. Elaine Hobby says that “its audience was not a conventional Lady but other men subordinated in the axiomatic legal and economic structures and the ideologies of the time as sustained and strengthened the.” The apparent sense of superiority and dominance can be seen in many of his poems as ‘advances of love’ where the woman is seen in terms of its “central zone”, ‘the company’ where it establishes that the Act of finding a virtuous woman was impossible. “Comparison” is another poem where degrades called beauty Lady and in poems such as ‘The appearance’, ‘The Relic’ that embody the contradictions inherent in the female gender.

discuss ‘ Elegy: the lover go to bed ‘, the male speaker assumes the role of a teacher and the entire process of undressing the woman becomes an act of usurpation. When it says that “to teach you, I am naked first”, put the woman in a position of vulnerability and aims to exploit its both physically and psychologically. It is not a philosopher of love per is but aims to explore a new language of love that can contain the opulence of their feelings. Anthony Low avers that he considers that the female body as an object and lays it bare to be explored and exploited. In most of his poems, although profusely on females aunque profusamente sobre las hembras hay is just a female voice to be heard. Silences women by its lines poetically overloaded than subversion elegance courtesan, but however are engorged with the lyrical beauty. George Parfitt sees this as knowledge of love for the male in which the process of the male lover discover new truths and the meaning of life itself. The entire strip of the beloved journey caters to the nuances of the poetry of Donne and his obsession with the female body sensual and sexual. F.R Leavis and T.S Eliot you term as a romantic ‘against’. Even in his poem “the flea” seems to despise social considerations of Lady and almost obliged to grant him immediate pleasure. ‘The sun rising’ and ‘Good morning day’ are its efforts to create a utopian world by themselves, but this world encompasses a “talkative, predatory man in one hand” and one subject completely silent in the other holds Catharine Belsey. The commodification of women, the Act of consciously not praising the virtues of she and the Act of wanting to fully possess it are symbolic of the works of Donne. Desperate and misogynist overtones can linger, juxtaposing with the complete subordination of the inferior sex, women. The male voice can be analyzed as a monarchist, exclusive and oncological builds a series of imperatives and reiterates to produce a healthy effect of the master-slave relationship. Thus the patriarchal inheritance presents in most of his works and he can be compared in this respect with Andrew Marvell that in his poems “to the coy Mistress” combines the persuasion of love with the philosophy of the carpe diem. Material powers that seem to be the focus of work of Donne does not follow the traditional pattern of elegiac, but we invite the reader to question the prevailing policy of “love” and examine the equation of power in the hierarchy of gender roles and the naturally associated with them. From love as a moral virtue does not imply its holy connotations to this poet who seems to be interested in the achievement of carnal desires and the power of the male genitalia that raises him to a pedestal and from where he controls his passion and his beloved, thus subjecting seems integral in terms of spiritual, carnal, emotional and psychological nuances of life.

imperialism was a factor that was frequent in England at the time of the writing of Donne. Had principles energetic and optimistic of the expansion of the kingdoms and the manifestation of the authority on them colonies oppressed. We can see in his poetry a use frequent of images of cartography, navigation and similar. This is attributed to his intrinsic sense of interest in these disciplines. The process of colonization was related with the process of new discoveries and explorations for the topography. The symbolism geographical that defines the work of Donne also holds the process of control by the force. The territorial advances of the Empire also involve the operation of a rule of domination and subordination which is very essentialist theory of the self concept. Excludes exploitation and possession of local resources and includes socially boycott to the themes of the colonized zone.

in the Donne poem ‘ a hymn to God, my God in my illness ‘, uses a variety of metaphors such as ‘peaceful sea’, ‘Jerusalem’, images, ‘discovery of the South Sea’ to describes the process of his last trip being from Earth to heaven. A perspective sees this as being transcendental, but more that that counts as a function of the process of colonization that indeed can be free. It uses puns, ironies, conceits and dislocations to explain the changing meanings in this text. For example, puns of the word ‘narrow’ as steps which divide the oceans for passages that redefine desire. In his poem “Elegy: My Mistress going to bed ‘ metaphorically directs his lover as America’ a new Earth’.” Anthony Easthope defines this as a process of the “sexualization” of the beloved joins objects or ideas more crude: theology, religion and cartography. This will also not undermine the basis of the equation of power of the oppressor and the oppressed. The woman as a colonial subject is defined in terms of the “other” whose difference is biological and sexual and social. The woman’s body becomes the land to be acquired and seized and therefore incorporates geographical dimensions. ‘Good morning’, heroic missions and commandments on expeditions to the sea will help illustrate this further. Also in poems such as ‘Canonization’ and ‘The Rising Sun’, imperialism is hinted about. In the first, Donne establishes its supremacy to level double-a level of lovemaking and at the level of instructing people around him to not interfere in this Act. Catharine Belsey says that the man aims to ‘own’ land and ‘own’ the woman also. Thus the constant use of the word ‘have’ increases the assertion that the woman stands as a taxable person, placed verbatim to glorify the male hegemony of the speaker. The last poem speaks of a ‘bed’ to be the center of the universe, encapsulating lovers worldwide to focus the rays of the Sun on them. Thus the amplitude of the bed, the poet asks the spectrum of his tyranny over women, conquering their literally and also challenge the sun itself power. K.W. Grandsen sees these recurrent and explicit references to the discovery as a “sexual relationship to adventure” where Donne uses and dilutes their fantasies to control and subordinate. John Dryden criticises the play with the mind of the sex fair. Thus Donne uses the twin processes of imperialism and patriarchy to reinforce stagnation in his mind to subjugate the weaker individual – either the woman or the colonial slave. It breaks using the poetic instrument be slave of mistress and makes a complete inversion of this style. Subverts the existing model and tries to carve a niche for itself. Although his poetry can be called ‘no love’ but nevertheless it awakens the emotions of the reader. The wordplay giving subtle clues to its readers to have a deep look of his psyche.

Joan Benet avers that “Donne proved every fruit in the garden of love”. What about making Donne does not deny existing patterns of love but to reinvent them so that they are tailored to their theories about it. His range of subjects include religion, theology, divinity and its range of ringtones include the flamboyant as sombre. It cannot be refused in writing about only the instincts of the carNE or only the dominance of a particular sex in this aspect. Coleridge praises him saying having vigor of wonder-exciting, infinite stores of capricious memory, penetrating thought that used in will and resourcefulness that he exerts the most unexpected moment!


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The Prelude As the Spiritual Autobiography of the Poet

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this autobiographical poem is written in blank verse by William Wordsworth. He wrote the first version at the age of 28 years and continued during his long life without publishing. It was published three months after the poet’s death in 1850, and was entitled by his widow Mary. It is not an external autobiography of poet, but it is an internal autobiography. He holds the record for the growth and development of the mind of the poet with the help of beauty and fear. In this poem, William Wordsworth recalls his experience of childhood that was enriched with the magic of nature. For him, nature is a better master, and under his teaching, soul, heart and mind growth occurs. Therefore, she transcends the male spirituality.

in the first book of the prelude, the poet speaks of his childhood and the time of school. Flame nature to a mother, and each time it in the lap of the mother, feeling happy and free like a bird. In addition, he lived in London, but his life seemed to be unnatural. The poet describes his contact with nature at the age of five. He always played with nature in Cockermouth. In Kankshead, he and his colleagues used to take part in a variety of games. In this book, which recounts how was fed and raised by the various ministries. Nature is a master for him, and under his teaching, understanding the rules and became himself spiritually as well as mentally. He accepts that their powerful weapons are fear and pleasure.

William Wordsworth us familiar with his childhood and wandering. He enjoyed much with his long spell of bathing in the river. Its long bathroom increases your pleasure and attraction to nature; for she has cold water sweet color, rhythm and test. The poet felt a great joy to play with him. Sometimes it worked in Sandy fields and jumped through tombs flowers. At times, he stood just under the blue sky in the middle of the enchanting rocks and hills glowing with bright rays of the Sun. Under such innocent pleasure, he understood that a boy of Indian Red coming from the hut of her mother to a naked savage in the shower Thunder sport. His bath in the river and wander in the company of valleys, hills and mountains provide a healthy pleasure that helped him grow and develop your mind and soul. The poet reminds them due to linking nature or spiritual world. In addition, still gives you more joy and pleasure, and the poet is capable of expressing or write his autobiography internal.

in his childhood, used to play different games with classmates. At the age of ten, he used to take Woodcock on the high hill sides under the light of the Moon and how he used to take hold of a bird that was caught in the trap of someone else. He was busy in such actions to the nature. The nature looked you and him excluded from such unfair acts through fear. The poet felt that a low breath followed him continually and persistent. Your search resulted in a fear of annoying him and do it again.

his other sport was stealing eggs from birds. With his young friends, went looking for high hills, and sometimes, they found him hanging just above the nest of a Crow. At that time, it was a strange and terrible sound of the wind against the Hill. The sky and the dark and gloomy clouds used to giant over support with a horrible look. He felt pure problems. One thing, I must admit that kids like steal eggs and play with them. Its main cause is the color of the eggs that actually attract children. The other is nature that teaches the child through fear when you’re alone. At the same time, nature pursues him and puts in his mind the fear that he may not repeat such acts.

to steal a boat, nature emits it a pure problem. They stole a boat and you move it over the Lake. He saw that his boat was moving as swain in the Lake. Apart from him, going by the mountains that really a great pleasure to him. All of a sudden, heard the sound of the sides of the mountain echo because the teacher (nature) did not accept the action. Admitting as a warning, he came into consternation. Sometimes, he found a huge black-and-white raising his head behind the range of hills. Nature as a strange and horrible creature with his will and his power followed him without pause. Under such consternation, he was brought into the same place where you stole the boat. He was overwhelmed by fear and ran back with a pensive mood. His mind was always chased by such huge forms that fostered his soul with fear.

your game was skating on the ice. Remember he, along with other friends, who moved on skates around the trees and hills. Sometimes he became friends and pursued them. You agree that nature followed him when he was alone. The echo of sounds of skates from the trees and the surrounding hills rising gave him pleasure innocent. He used to enjoy in the lap of nature. He gave turned jocundly turns and turns. This always excited company that understand the pursuit of nature.

is the nature that allowed him to play in his lap and express his love for her. Although he was grown up, he did not forget those sprees and memories of childhood that made this easy and cheerful materialist world with a touch of nature. Poems about natural objects show its gratitude to her.


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