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The Thematic Analysis of The Poem "Do-Gooders" By Olu Obafemi

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The poem titled DO-GOODERS was written by Olu Obafemi to portray the weaknesses and atrocities of the religionists who instead of being the last hope of a common man are threats to people’s life. He tries to condemn the attitudes of the religionists who are using their position as a man or messenger of God to blindfold the people and exploit them. They use their position to tell people lies and demand exorbitantly from them; they deny them their belongings and turn those wretched (lines 14-17).

The central theme of the poem is CONDEMNATION. Olu Obafemi tries to expose what is happening in our present environment where people dabbled into church, mosque or palm grooves only to save themselves from the escalating unemployment problem. When the people eventually discover these anomalies of the people of God, they tend to be aggressive. This has led to desertion of many churches, many mosques have been damned and some grooves are no more in existence (lines 10-13)

The poet shows his anger or agony when he said that Horror begets horror, to nullify horror, meaning that whenever these type of people are caught, they must be dealt with without an iota of mercy, just as thieves, tied to the stakes, and set on fire (lines 18 and 19). He emphasized that pity should not be allowed to come in because they have destroyed many lives already; many have been turned to wretched beings, with bloated stomach, smelling like the stinking gutters and sucked thin (lines 1-5).

The poet ended it by lamenting saying, Woe be on them, who cheat in the name of God, even an unending woe.

POETIC DEVICES IN THE POEM

Let’s examine jus two (2): Poetic License and the figures of speech used in the poem.

Language used (Poetic License)

Poetic license is the permission given to a poet to use unconventional language i.e. free to use language in whatever way it pleases him in order to achieve his desires. He can violate the grammaticality of language.

They include in this poem the following:

1. Bloated – swollen in an unpleasant way (line 1)

2. Hoot – funny situation of a person/short loud laugh of a person (line 5)

3. Flatulent – sound important in the way that exaggerate truth (line 9)

4. Damnable – bad or annoying (line 12)

5. Stakes – host on which somebody to be burnt is first tie (line 18)

6. Wretched – extremely bad or unpleasant (line 13)

7. Flakes – small pieces of something larger

8. Blazed – mount brightly and strongly

9. Do-gooders: those who do good/believed to be doing good

Figures of Speech

Expressions used to polish any piece of writing and to embellish it in a poetic ornament so as to make it elaborate, vivid, picturesque and interesting (Roy Omoni)

1. Assonance:

Line 1: bloated stomachs

Line 7: horror begets horror

Line 19: blazed in flames and flakes

2. Consonance:

Line 7: horror begets horror

Line 19: blazed in flames and flakes

3. Alliteration:

Line 4: of sprawling skeletons

Line 7: horror begets horror

Line 19: blazed in flames and flakes

4. Repetition:

Line 7 & 8: horror begets horror to nullify horror

5. Rhyme:

Line 18 & 19: must be tied to stakes

blazed in flames and flakes

6. Enjambment:

Line 7 & 8: horror begets horror to nullify horror

Line 3 & 4: the naked ribs of sprawling skeletons


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5 Important Factors To Be Considered While Analyzing A Poem

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Poetry is a great part of the literature and owes acclaim due to its beautiful language with imagery built therein to sprinkle ideas with poetic splendor. It conveys some message to people or reflects the mood of the poet.

Analyzing a poem demands creativity, imagination, sharp eye for details and a latent understanding of the inner layers of meaning in the poem.The following factors are to be considered while analyzing a poem.

Overall texture of the poem

Not just one reading would suffice to understand the meaning of a poem. Several readings are required to understand the message, overall texture and meaning of the poem. It is advisable to read aloud first, give a second glance and then read slowly to get into the meaning of words. Without understanding the overall tone and meaning of the poem, it is hard to understand the message conveyed therein.

Tone and mood

It can be melancholy, happiness, jubilation, solitary musings or regret or repentance-the mood of the speaker or the poet has to be fixed so that the poem can be interpreted on those lines.

Style

patterns make a poem effective for reading. It also helps ease understanding of the poem.

Imagery is the wonderful language that picturesquely describes the poet’s thoughts and brings before us the world he wants to delineate.

Figures of speech like simile, metaphor portrayed in a poem is to be noted down for appreciating the beauty of the poem and the imagination of the poet. At the same time, the symbolic meaning they convey should be interpreted in proper language to give a fine touch to the analysis of the poem.

Theme

Poetry normally doesn’t convey the theme directly and it is very subtle in getting across the theme through words and scenes that are picturesque with hidden meanings. Rarely one finds poems which are direct in their message. Through repeated readings, one can understands the theme of a poem. A search for the cultural background or personnel details of the poet could help a person in fixing the theme with ease.

Getting familiar with many other works of the poet will increase one’s knowledge of the poet’s recurrent themes and preferences. For example, when a student examines a poem by Emily Dickinson, he could analyze her thoughts about death with a better perspective had he known her other poems.

Symbols and repetitive words

Certain words may be repetitive with specific meaning in a context. For example, symbolic words in Robert Frost’s poems are the conveyers of the poet’s philosophy of life as in ‘After Apple Picking’, ‘Road Not Taken ‘or ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening’.

Conclusion

It is an overall understanding of a poem with an innate poetic sensibility that would help a person deciphers the language of the poet in the proper sense and decode his message convincingly. Getting guidelines from teachers and tutors would help students analyze the assigned poems in an effective manner and win fabulous scores.

Online English tutors are a great succor for students in analyzing poems of complex structure. Their adept skills in reading in among lines to pick out the inner meanings of a poem to help students take a right stand in analyzing a poem. It would be great exposure to students if they access online tutoring services for critical analysis of poems in their homework.


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How to Write a Critical Appreciation of a Poem

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Critical appreciation of a poem is defined as the critical reading of a poem. The meaning of its words, its rhyme, scheme, the speaker, figures of speech, the references to other works (intertextuality), the style of language, the general writing style of the poet ( if mentioned), the genre, the context, the tone of the speaker and such other elements make up the critical reading or appreciation. It does not mean criticising the poem. A critical appreciation helps in a better understanding of the verse.

  • Meaning- Read the poem more than once to get a clear idea of what the speaker is trying to say. Look up the meanings of difficult or unusual words in a thesaurus. The title of the poem is a key to the general meaning and summary of the thought presented. A poem might be about lost love, ‘Lucy’ (Wordsworth).
  • Rhyme Scheme- Find the rhyming words. These occur at the end of each line. Rhyming words might be present in the middle of the line also. Mark the rhyme scheme. For example, if rhyming words occur at the end of each line alternatively in a poem of 4 lines, the rhyme scheme will be ‘a b a b’. In the poem, ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening’ by Robert Frost, the second stanza goes like this:

“My little horse must think it queer

To stop without a farmhouse near

Between the woods and frozen lake

The darkest evening of the year… “

In these lines, the rhyme scheme is ‘a a b b’

In several poems, there are no rhymes. Such a poem is called a blank verse.

  • Speaker- Identify the speaker of the poem. It can be a child, an elderly, a shepherd, a swordsman, a student, a milkmaid, a sailor, an animal or even an object like a chair or a place like a house or a mountain. Each Speaker will speak differently.
  • Setting- Every poem has a specific setting. It might be a ship or a modern condominium. The setting is the background of the poem and contributes to its meaning. For example, the setting of a pastoral is very likely to be a grazing ground for a flock of ship. The setting of Eliot’s ‘Preludes’ is a modern city with its people leading a mechanical life. The words also convey the same sense.

“And short square fingers stuffing pies,

And evening newspapers, and eyes,

Assured of certain certainties… “

  • Context- The context gives us the time and location of the poem. It is what prompted the poem. The context might be an event of great political significance like the French Revolution. It prompted P.B. Shelley’s famous, “Ode to the West Wind.” The poem beautifully upholds the spirit of the revolution and heralded the dawn of a new age.
  • Language- The language of a poem is the very vehicle of its thoughts and ideas. Study the language in terms of the use of figures of speech, its tone, use of loan words or archaic words, length of sentences, the rhythm (meters- iambic, Trochaic or any other), number of lines etc. Note the introduction of new ideas and mark the place where it occurs. For example, in the poem, ‘The lamb’ by William Blake, the lamb refers to both the baby sheep, the little boy who is the speaker and the Lamb of God. Here the word, “lamb” is a metaphor.
  • Intertextuality- While writing the critical appreciation of a poem, we notice that another poem is alluded or looked back upon. This is called intertextuality or reference. For example, Chaucer’s ‘Canterbury Tales’ allude to Boccaccio’s ‘Decameron’ in its structure of people narrating stories during a journey.
  • Genre- Genre roughly means the category of the poem. Each genre has set rules and characteristics. For example, a very long narrative poem, running into a several thousands of lines, dealing with divine figures or demi-gods or great generals of the past and describing a terrible war or an incredible journey on which the fate of humanity rests can be termed as epic. For example, the ‘Iliad’ (Homer), ‘Paradise Lost’ (J. Milton) and such poems. A short poem of 14 lines expressing intimate emotions is a ‘sonnet’. For example, ‘Let me not to the marriage of true minds’ (Shakespeare) is a sonnet extolling real love and devotion. There are several genre- satire, mock-epic, ballad, lyric, ode, parody etc.


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The Good Morrow by John Donne – Critical Summary

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The poem “The Good Morrow” is amongst the best of metaphysical love poetry produced by John Donne. The poem begins with a question asked to the two lovers, the poet and his beloved; Donne asks “what thou and I did till we love?” The question is meaningful and needs no answer because the clearly indicates that the life before falling into love was no more than “country pleasures” like that of a child sucking his mother’s breast for survival. The child in sucking the mother’s breast is never aware of the world around him.

The poet goes on to compare himself and his beloved with the use of a conceit, far-fetched metaphor, of “Seven Sleepers’ Den” to express that their entire life was nothing more than unconscious life. Had they enjoyed any sort of pleasures and experienced joys, those were nothing but imagination. The poet opens up his heart in the praise of his beloved as:

“If ever any beauty I did see;

Which I desired, and got, ’twas but a dream of thee.”

The poet says good morrow to the “waking souls” of himself and his beloved because their past life, before they met, was all shadow and darkness of sleep. It is now, after meeting his beloved, that the poet feels his waking soul. The poet believes that a little love can convert even a small room into an entire world.

The poet wishes to ignore the world around him because he wants to be focused on his beloved alone. Therefore the sea discoverers may discover new worlds, maps be spread, but the poet must “possess one world” of the unity of lovers union. Donne creates a lovely equation here i.e. a lover is equal to beloved and the beloved is equal to lover. In other words, Donne’s mathematics would display the result of:

1 lover + 1 beloved = 1 love

Or

1+1= 1

This is the equation which leads to the merger of lovers’ being into oneness:

“My face in thine eye, thine in mine appears”.

The poet even goes on to declare the two lovers as “two better hemispheres”.

John Donne has convinced us of the magical charms of love and the deeds of lovers which have the power to transform normal beings and casual acts into the evergreen stories; here the story is of a lover and beloved that has formed oneness of being through the pure love which is beyond physical.

Read More from this author on: http://www.risenotes.com


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The Clarity Pyramid – Poem to Practice Word Choice Techniques

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The Clarity Pyramid

The Clarity Pyramid is a recently created short poetry form. Like most short forms, the key to success is to choose your words wisely. Because of this, it is a great option for you to practice word choice techniques.

The first line is the keystone of the entire poem. All other lines exist to further support and define this single word. In other words, they clarify this word for the reader.

BRIEF HISTORY

Jerry P. Quinn, a financial strategist and poet, is the architect of the Clarity Pyramid. He constructed the poetry form in 2002.

MUST HAVES

—Three stanzas which are made up of two triplets and a final clarifying line.

—The foundation of the clarity pyramid is the first line, which is a single syllable word.

—The first line must be in capital letters.

—Each successive line is increased in syllabic count by one – except the forth line, which increases by two.

Form Structure:

1 SYLLABLE

2 syllables

3 syllables

5 syllables

6 syllables

7 syllables

“8 syllables”

—There are also criteria in the construction of each line.

Remember, the first line must be a single, one-syllable word and must also be capitalized. This line has the added function of being the title of the poem. Here is what you must keep in mind as you build rest of the lines.

Line two and line three must clarify or be synonyms of the word in the first line. All the lines in the second stanza must describe a life event linked to the word in the first line. The eighth and final line must be in quotations and further describe the first line.

That particular rule bothers me, and would be one of the first rules I would break with my poetry contractor’s license. I don’t like using the quotes unless I am – well, quoting someone or using them in order to show dialogue.

COULD HAVES or What’s The Poet’s Choice In All This?

—You may choose to center align the poem or not. Many poets choose center alignment in order to create a visual pyramid, but it isn’t a requirement.

—The use of rhyme and meter, although I wouldn’t recommend either for this short form.

—What language your first word is in. Actually, what language your entire poem is in, but since I am an English speaking poet – I will speak from this perspective.

NEW VARIATION 1: I love words and thought it would be interesting to take a word in another language for the first word and then use the rest of the poem to “clarify” it in English. (This could also be a good opportunity for non-native English speakers to take an English word and use the rest of the poem to “clarify” it in their native tongue.) Because many languages use a lot of syllables in their words, this might be the time to take the Clarity Pyramid to the next level and create another new variation (See below).

NEW VARIATION 2: Follow the rules set in place, but change the syllabic count to word count.

OF NOTE

Jerry P. Quinn has won several poetry contests and had many of his poems published.


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Heer Damodar

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Heer Damodar — revived in translation

The love-legend of Heer-Ranjha has been narrated by as many as 42 different poets. No other epic in world literature is known to have achieved this distinction. Among the surviving versions of the story, Damodar’s Heer is probably the oldest.

The gifted poet has left little behind about himself except the repeated chants such as “name Damodar, caste Gulhati” in the mesmerising tale, which has been the subject of numerous movies and stage plays over the decades on either side of the Pakistan-India divide. The storyline, characters, tribes and places have almost been the same in every telling with minor changes. For instance, Waris Shah names Heer’s mother as Malki but Damodar calls her Kundi.

Researchers could barely unearth scant details about the writer of this variant of Heer such as that he was a Sikh named Damodar Das Arora, a resident of Jhang, where Heer’s grave is still venerated as a shrine. His claim that the legend took place during the reign of Emperor Akbar and that he saw it unfold before his own eyes is dismissed by critics as nothing more than poetic fancy. Among other things, they say, the vocabulary he has used reveals he lived sometime in the late 18th century or early 19th century. Damodar and his work were virtually unknown till 1927 when the first of his three manuscripts of Heer was discovered in Jhang.

Though the Waris Shah version of Heer has eclipsed all other narrations, and hence not much read and appreciated, Heer Damodar is distinctly remarkable in certain ways.

“Damodar’s Heer is written like a fast-paced screenplay. There are no pauses or descriptive flights of imagination. The tale moves with great speed. Damodar builds in an immense amount of his knowledge of human nature and of the issues in the society of rural Punjab into the tale and its characters,” says Muzaffar Ghaffar in his preface to the book, which is a link in the Within reach – masterworks of Punjabi poetry series. “He is a master storyteller who always keeps the reader’s interest alive. Indeed his Heer should have become a great favourite of professional storytellers, but… it is virtually unknown in the oral tradition. And yet there appears to be extraneous material in the three manuscripts which are available. Such corruptions usually only occur with much-told, orally transmitted tales. This is another enigma about Heer Damodar.”

When we evaluate Muzaffar Ghaffar’s Within reach series, we really run short of adjectives. Call it fantastic, grand, great, marvelous, monumental, phenomenal, wondrous… none of the word would seem a hyperbole. He has produced Bulleh Shah (two volumes), Baba Fareed Ganjshakar, Baba Nanak, Sachal Sarmast, Sultan Bahu, Khwaja Ghulam Fareed and Shah Husain (three volumes). Even a single volume on Khwaja Ghulam Fareed in Urdu fetched a scholar a Pride of Performance Award during the Musharraf regime. The writer, I withhold his name lest I seem to be slighting his contribution to Punjabi language and literature, really deserved the award. But I firmly believe that each of Muzaffar sahib’s books merits as much recognition. His other works, five English poetry collections; How the governments work; The brain, the body, the soul, the mind; and Unity in diversity – a vision for Pakistan, are also enlightening and highly readable.

What does he have in those books of the Punjabi sufi poetry that is rare? He has taken a vast selection of each of the great masters’ works first in Nastaliq and did its poetic translation in Gurmukhi. As with these books he particularly tries to reach the English-reading lovers of Punjabi classic poetry across the world, he renders it in Romanised script, translates the poetry into English verse (only one line for each line), explains the meanings of difficult words and then has a detailed discussion on those lines in lucid language. To make the reader’s job easier still, he gives an elaborate glossary at the end of each volume. Only a random quote form Heer Damodar may illustrate the point:

“The allure comes now. Heer Syal has grown up. Her beauty and demeanour are both affirmed by telling us that her feet don’t touch the ground. (In this phrase the word zamin is usually pronounced zimin). She skims on the ground with grace and beauty, she is almost in flight. This description may be preparing us for haughtiness in Heer. Such nonchalance of being oblivious to her surroundings is surely the result of an irrefutable self-knowledge that she is beautiful. (And beauty has its own power). The poet masterfully gives a grounding in her deportment by telling us that her feet did not touch the ground. This is so for good reason, not just an innate arrogance….”

Muzaffar’s interest in what is his true labour of love seems to be increasing with his growing age and falling health. His last book Shah Husain was in three volumes. The book under review has four, the whole of Heer Damodar. His next venture, Heer Waris Shah which is being given final touches, will have six volumes. And one may hope that the process will continue and what might become extinct in original text would come alive in his excellent translation.

Considering the high quality production, the cost might be justifiable. But how would common people interested in Punjabi sufi poetry would access and benefit from this book is a question that needs to be addressed.

Heer Damodar: Within Reach (Four volumes)

By Muzaffar A. Ghaffaar

ISBN 978-969-0-02173-1

Ferozsons (Pvt) Ltd

60, Shahrah-i-Quaid-i-Azam Lahore;

277, Peshawar Road, Rawalpindi;

Mehran Heights, Main Clifton Road,

Karachi

Four-volume boxed set Rs3,995


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Claude Mckay – From a Patois Poet in Jamaica to Harlem Helping in Reinvigorating Black Literature

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One of the most distinguished poets of our time Claude McKay was born in Sunny Ville, Jamaica, British West Indies in September 15, 1889, as the youngest of eleven children of his peasant parents in Jamaica, Thomas Francis and Ann Elizabeth (Edwards) McKay. McKay’s family was fairly well off having received land from the bride’s and the groom’s fathers.He. is mostly known by his much-quoted sonnet: “If we Must Die” which was popularized during World War II by British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill.

Raised in Sunny Ville, in Clarendon Hills Parish by a compassionate mother and a stern father who passed on to his children much of the Ashanti customs and traditions of Ghana where he hailed from, his poetry demonstrates his undying attachment to his roots and a deep affection for Clarendon where he was born and raised. Such nostalgia for Jamaica was demonstrated even in his later poems when abroad.

His early dialect verse makes nostalgic references to the Clarendon Hills. His father, Thomas McKay, had always shared with his children the story of his own father’s enslavement seeking thus to instill in them a suspicion of whites that would become particularly evident in the writings of his son. McKay’s profound respect for the sense of community encountered among rural Jamaican farmers and a somewhat skeptical attitude toward religion encouraged by his older brother, an elementary school teacher, left an indelible mark on his literary work.

At seventeen, McKay through a government sponsorship became apprenticed to a cabinet-maker in Brown’s Town. At nineteen, moving on to Kingston, the capital, he joined the Police Force where his gentle disposition received its first great jolt. For then West Indian Policemen were recruited more for their muscle than their brain, which they were expected to celebrate and honor every hour whilst on the beat.

The Police Force was therefore not the best place for one like McKay who was always upset by human suffering. Two collections of poetry that he published in 1912 emerged largely out of his experience as a constabulary which he found along with urban life in general to be alienating. He felt uncomfortably located between the Jamaican elite and the great mass of the urban poor. Many of the concerns that would occupy much of his later work such as the opposition of the city and the country, the problems of exile, and the relation of the black intellectuals to their common folks appear first in these poems.

His second volume of poems of dialect verse Constab Ballads accurately records such experiences. His first volume of poems Songs of Jamaica was written only to relieve his bitter feelings of guilt while in the force. He calmly keeps reprimanding those responsible for social injustices to his people. To relieve his feelings, he sought to write of redeeming features in the dark picture. His gentle nature led him to pity his people’s suffering and to protest against it. He thus got compelled to relieve himself by celebrating their cheerfulness and other positive qualities. Their interest and vitality as human beings is enriched by their cheerfulness and good humor which vibrates in spite of generally dispiriting conditions.

His sympathy for the criminals, whom he often considered the victims of an unjust colonial order, could not allow him to work as a police constable beyond a year. During the ensuing two years back at Clarendon Parish he was encouraged to write Jamaican Dialect Poetry by Walter Jekyll, an English collector of island folklore with whom McKay had forged a close relationship. Jekyll had introduced him to English poets such as Milton and Pope.

In 1912 McKay published two volumes of poetry Songs of Jamaica and Constab Ballads. Songs of Jamaica with an introduction and melodies by Jekyll to celebrate the unpretentious nature and the simplicity of the Jamaican peasants who are closely bonded to their native soil. Constab Ballads centres more on Kingston and the contempt and exploitation suffered there by dark-skinned blacks at the hands of whites and mulattos. These books made McKay the first black to receive the medal of the Jamaican Institute of Arts and Sciences with a substantial cash award which he was to use to fund his education at Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, the United States.

He seemed to have regretted later having been “an agent of colonial oppression in a most brutal manner.” In both works McKay made extensive use of the Jamaican language, a patois of English.

When in 1912 McKay left Jamaica for the U.S.A., it was inevitable that this should lead to an eruption of Negro verse from his pen. For here was a man with a proud sense of his race, who had seen his people suffering in Jamaica and had fled an evergreen land with its luxuriantly waving palms bending to the force of the persistent tropical winds in quest of more opportunities in a more open world.

And he goes to America to meet unimaginable Negro suffering. But rather than return to the less demanding life of Jamaica, he felt a compulsion to remain and join the struggle, for he was already bound with the American blacks in their bondage. And no wonder. For McKay’s early years in New York were a time of growing racial bitterness, with the stiffening of the South. Negro disillusionment with Booker T. Washington and a consequent adjustment of the Negro attitude; the increase in white hysteria and violence, which was to become even harsher after the war which had been fought by them as well as in defence of democracy and the rise of Garveyism and the hostility between Garvey and the N.A.A.C.P. and others – all such factors combined to bring about the Negro Renaissance, of which McKay became an integral part.

McKay however maintained for a long time a sober reaction to his new and disturbing environment. Determined to maintain the dignity of his poet’s calling, he refused to allow the quality of his reaction as a poet to be warped. He equally refused to allow his ambitions and status as a human being to be destroyed. His verses remained virile keeping with the prevailing atmosphere then, for those early years in America were really crucial years for the Black cause. But the virility of his verse is based on more than mere bitterness. It includes and depends on a certain resilience – or stubborn humanity traceable to McKay’s capacity to react to Negro suffering not just as a Negro, but as a human being. For as he maintains, the writer must always retain this capacity for a larger and more basic reaction as a human being to maintain his humanity.

In so doing he would avoid stunting his emotional growth and his stature as a human being. By identifying with his own race, a writer can proceed to that greater and more meaningful identification based on his humanity thus qualifying him to handle “racial” material.

“If We Must Die” immediately won popularity among Afroamericans, but the tone of the Negro critics was apologetic. To them a poem that voiced the deep-rooted instinct of self-preservation seemed merely a daring piece of impertinence. William S Braithwaite whom McKay described as the dean of Negro critics denounced him as a “violent and angry propagandist using his poetic gifts to clothe [arrogant] and defiant thoughts.” Whilst another disciple characterized him as “rebellious and vituperative.”

McKay goes on to point out the lapses and failings in respectable Negro opinion and criticism. This in turn brings in distortions and evasions in their representation and interpretation of the social realities informing the texts.

This brought about the apparent ambivalence in his love-hate relationship with America. Having had no illusions about America and the experience of its Negroes, he could at the same time pay her the tribute she deserved: one reflecting both its appeal as well as its bitter dejection. which he still endures as a necessary test of his resilience. In paying her this tribute he triumphs through his successful resistance to the threat of spiritual corrosion America’s ‘hate’ threatens to start within him. He could thus “stand within her walls with not a shred / Of terror, malice, not a word of fear.” Or as in “Through Agony,” he refuses to meet hate with hate. McKay thus continued his admiration for America despite the pain which she caused.

McKay sees not only the violence done to his own people, but that which the whites inflict on themselves as well. McKay is touched by misery: in “The Castaway” where, standing in a beautiful park, he is attracted not by the visible delights of nature but by “the castaways of earth,” the lonely and derelict, and turns away in misery. And it is mot clear and does not matter if they are black or white. In “Rest in Peace” his tender heart responds to the suffering of his people as he bids farewell to a departed friend.

McKay meets America’s challenge as man and poet. He meets the challenge which America’s hate sets for his humanity, and in his resistance he flings back his challenge to the forces of hate in “America.” As poet and man he enforces self-discipline which gives to his pain a dignity through which his verse sometimes transcends racial protest and becomes human protest.

McKay’s poetry certainly reflected another aspect of Negro reaction. This reaction is a new consciousness of the African connection following Marcus Garvey’s “Back to Africa” appeal. Intellectual Negro poetry was thus moving nearer to Africa spiritually. Garvey’s call for a black man’s religion was paralleled in sophisticated verse, So was his insistence on the past glories of the Negro race. So was the new pride he encouraged in Negro beauty and indeed in everything black, ideas of which he sometimes put into rather indifferent verse romanticizing Africa. McKay does the same in poems like “Harlem Shadows.”

When McKay arrived in America he enrolled in Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute with the intent to study agriculture disrupted his studies at Tuskegee Institute after only two months there and out of frustration. He enrolled at Kansas State College where he remained until 1914. Then after two years he resumed his career as a writer. He then went to new York where like Hughes he landed in Harlem. Whilst familiarizing himself with the literary scene in New York, he supported himself as a waiter and a porter from 1915 to 1918. His first break came in 1917 when Waldo Frank, a Jewish radical novelist and cultural critic published two of his sonnets “The Harlem Dancer” and “Invocation” in the December issue of The Seven Arts, a highly respected avant-garde magazine.

Between 1918 and 1919, McKay went abroad, visited England and lived in London for more than a year. There he compiled Spring in New Hampshire and Other Poems (1920). In 1919, on his return to New York, McKay joined the staff of Liberator magazine as associate editor and continued in that position until 1922, a period in which Max Eastman was then the editor. In 1922, McKay completed Harlem Shadows, a work of poetry considered a landmark of the Harlem Renaissance .

Short- story writer Frank Harris who published several of McKay’s poems in Pearson’s seems also to have made a major impression on the young poet. Unlike later black writers, McKay did not rely primarily on such periodicals as the Crisis and Opportunity as outlets for his verse. Though he wrote for black magazines occasionally, his literary ties were mostly with white publications, particularly with the leftist magazines based in Greenwich Village. Indeed, Max Eastman, the dean of the American literary left in the early twentieth century, published McKay’s “The Dominant White” in the April 1919 issue of The Liberator and nine more of his poems in the July issue. McKay later served as Eastman’s editorial staff contributing essays and reviews as well as poetry. He also befriended the famous white American poet Edward Arlington Robinson.

In 1919, he met George Bernard Shaw the British playwright whilst visiting England. G.K Ogden included nearly two dozen of McKay’s poems in the summer 1920 issue of Cambridge Magazine. I.A. Richards, one of the foremost English literary critics of the twentieth century, wrote the preface for McKay’s third book of verse, Spring in New Hampshire. According to Richards, McKay’s was among the best works being produced in Great Britain then.

On his return to the US, McKay continued to work for and contribute to a number of publications including that of his fellow Jamaican, Marcus Garvey, Negro World. The next year in 1922, he published his most important poetry collection, Harlem Shadows, thus virtually inaugurating the Harlem Renaissance. That book was a means through which he could place the militant “If We Must Die” inside of a book. This sonnet inspired by the racial violence that racked America in 1919 interpreted as a war-like cry by black radicals later served as one of the unofficial rallying cries of the Allied Forces in World War II, particularly after being recited in an emotionally charged speech before the House of Commons in response to Nazi Germany’s threat of invasion during World War II. Harlem Shadows marked a point of no return for several literary figures in Harlem who saw in McKay’s masterful treatment of racial issues evidence that a black writer’s insights into matters of race could serve on more than on occasional basis as suitable subjects for poetry.

That same year McKay visited the USSR. For being active in the social justice movement, McKay had become a Communist, believing that communism offered his cause greater hope. In 1923, in Moscow McKay addressed the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, as a black poet sympathetic to the Soviet cause. He achieved instant popularity among the proletariat as well as with Communist Party officials of the USSR. He was introduced to the Soviet leaders and had his poem “Petrograd May Day, 1923” published in translation in Pravda. Nevertheless, dismayed by the rigid ideological requirements of the Communist Party concerning all artistic productions, and perhaps a little tired of being treated as a novelty, and having to subjugate his art to political propaganda.

McKay traveled extensively abroad. After visits to Berlin and Paris, he settled down in France for a decade. He, however, remained in contact with the expatriate community of American writers.

Whilst in France his first novel Home to Harlem was produced in 1928 and work on his second Banjo was started. This last novel was completed during his travels in Spain and Morocco in 1929.

In these two novels of the 1920s McKay investigated how the concepts of race and class worked in a world dominated by capitalism and colonialism, and how cosmopolitan and rural black communities can be reconciled to each other.

Home to Harlem. the first bestseller novel by an African-American that won the Harmon Gold Award for Literature was reprinted five times in two months. It was more commercially successful than any novel by an African American author to that point. For it satisfied a consuming curiosity among Americans for information about the nightlife and the lowlife of Harlem. The novel examines two characters who literally take the reader on a tour of Harlem. Jake, an African American longshoreman, a hedonist, and a World War 1 veteran, deserts the army and returns to his beloved Harlem where he falls in love with a whore after she affectionately and surreptitiously returns the money he has paid her.

Through Jake we are introduced to Ray, a Haitian intellectual expatriate who worries constantly and feels isolated from the African American community as a result of his European education. He thus envies Jake who is more spontaneous and direct. As for Ray, his own desire to become a writer interferes with his enjoyment of life. The stern W.E.B. Du Bois was caustic in denouncing McKay’s presentation of Harlem, declaring that the book “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth, I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” In response, McKay accused Du Bois of failing to make the proper distinction “between the task of propaganda and the work of art.”

Ray appears again in Banjo with another “natural” black character, the African American musician Lincoln Agrippa Daily. Set in the old French port of Marseilles, this second novel of McKay features a shifting group of black longshoremen sailors and drifters from Africa. As in his first, McKay articulates the need for the exiled black intellectual to return to his common black folks.

McKay’s third novel, Banana Bottom regarded generally as his finest fictional achievement takes the theme of the two previous novels even further. It depicts also a black individual in white western culture juxtaposing two opposing value systems – Anglo-Saxon civilization versus Jamaican folk culture. It tells the story of a Jamaican peasant girl, Bita Plant, who is rescued by white missionaries after being raped. In taking refuge with her new protectors she also becomes their prisoner with all their cultural values being foisted upon her and her introduction to their organized Christian educational system.

All this culminates in a bungled attempt to arrange her marriage to an aspiring priest. But Bita escapes from him as he attempts to rape her. But later overcoming the memory of rape she returns to the people in their native town of Jubilee where she eventually finds happiness – fulfillment. She ends up thus rejecting European culture and the Jamaican elite, choosing to rejoin the farming folk. This novel did not make much of an impression on the reading public then.

After twelve years wandering through Europe and North Africa, McKay returned to Harlem. Three years later in 1937 he completed his autobiography, A Long Way from Home, in a futile attempt to bolster his financial and literary fortunes. His interest in Roman Catholicism which was growing significantly during the 1940s after his repudiation of communism and officially joined the church in 1944. Though he wrote much new poetry then, he failed to publish any, a failure he blamed on the Communist Party in the U.S. ). His final work Selected Poems (1953) was published posthumously.

From 1932 until his death in Chicago 1948, McKay never left the United States. His interest in communism dwindled, according to Sister Mary Anthony: he had caught some of the spirit of that Catholic apostolate. And gradually he came to realize for himself that in Catholicism lay the hope of the race, indeed, of all the races. He was received into the Church in Chicago in October, 1944, by Bishop Bernard Sheil and is now on the staff of the Bishop Sheil School in that city.

By the mid 1940s McKay’s health had deteriorated and after enduring several illnesses, he died of heart failure in Chicago in 1948.

McKay’s work as a poet, novelist, and essayist has been widely seen as heralding several of the most significant moments in African American culture. His protest poetry was seen by many as the premier example of the “New Negro” spirit. His novels were sophisticated considerations of the problems and possibilities of Pan-Africanism at the end of the colonial era, influencing writers of African descent throughout the world. His early poetry in Jamaican patois and his fiction set in Jamaica are now seen as crucial to the development of a national Jamaican literature.


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Publishing Poetry in Newspapers: Where to Submit

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According to Dana Gioia, Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, “Daily newspapers no longer review poetry. There is, in fact, little coverage of poetry or poets in the general press”. (Can Poetry Matter, Dana Gioia, 1991).

John Timpane, Philadelphia Inquirer Commentary page editor, adds: “Today, in my opinion, most newspaper people are afraid of poetry. They’re afraid readers won’t understand it, especially poetry they (these newspaper people) find “hard” or “experimental.” It amounts to a fear of the verbal. (Kelly Writers House, 1999).

One could argue Gioia and Timpane’s claims today, as print media seemingly loses ground, with technological advancements in communications, and as the art of poetry and its society becomes increasingly associated with academia, thereby making it less user-friendly to the general public.

However, there is, even today, life in the press. This article addresses the newspapers that currently

accept poetry from the people; listed below are the following newspapers in the United States, (compiled by Melanie Simms) that presently accept poetry submissions.

(If anyone has information on additional listings, please e-mail them to Melanie Simms at [email protected] or contact her at her website at [http://www.poetmelaniesimms.net]).

Current List of Newspapers that Publish Poetry:

Philadelphia Inquirer: Contact: John Timpane at [email protected]

The York Daily Record: Contact: Bill Diskin: [email protected]

The Oregonian: Ask for the Poetry Editor or call: 503-221-8100

The Santa Cruz Sentinel: Contact: 831-423-4242 and ask for the Poetry Editor

The Pittsburgh Post Gazette: Contact: 412-263-1100 and ask for the Poetry Editor

The Christian Science Monitor: Contact: 617-450-2000 and ask for the Poetry Editor

Clearly this current list is small (albeit still in development) which only forwards the concerns of the American public that “poetry in the newspapers” is a dying breed, but thanks to the “die-hard” efforts of these remaining voices in today’s newspapers, America still has hope to see the art rekindled.

Every poet and citizen who appreciates the art has an opportunity and obligation as well to assist. The newspapers depend upon its readers. Share your voices of concern so that the press realizes that Dana Gioia, John Timpane and your humble author are not alone in their desire to see poetry in the news again. You can do so by contacting your local poetry editor and requesting a poetry article be developed, or, if you’re creatively (and financially inclined) start a poetry column of your own from your own small newspaper press.

Let the voice of the people be heard in the art of poetry and thrive once again in the newspapers!


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Critical Analysis of Pedro Pietri’s Poem Ode to a Grass Hopper

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The poem can be analyzed from several schools of thought. Let’s consider new criticism. New criticism focuses on the aesthetic aspect, the tropes used in it. An unexpected grasshopper staring at the poet’s thoughts is personification. The telephone having a mind of its own is again rhetorically a personification. Miracle on the 53rd street is magic realism. You mind your own business and I won’t pose you any questions are again poetry infused with personification. My non existing paint brushes are a metaphor suggestive of grass not growing in a high-rise building.

Psychoanalytically speaking there’s a hint of egotistic narcissism in the mind of the poet. The gaze of the poet is in Lacan’s language is a phallic gaze. The poet does not make music of poetry about the grasshopper but gazes at it from different masculine points of view. The grasshopper staring at him brings into juncture a masculine phallic gaze. This gaze is a gaze that is constructed cinematically too. Rather than being delighted the language of the poem revolves around the gaze. The relationship is impersonal, ‘you mind your business and I mind my own’.

From a Jungian point of view, the grasshopper becomes an archetype of a gnome or a troll. The grasshopper is psychologically portrayed in a language where the archetype defies rather than deifies the presence of the subject. The grasshopper becomes a psychic entity, an invading mental juggernaut who speaks to the poet in the language of a cosmic machine. In Jungian language, grasshopper is the presence of a dark archetype, a little devil incarnate that deliberately disturbs the privacy of the poet.

Existentially speaking there’s a hint of deliberate nihilism in the poem. The poet has negated the existence of the grasshopper in a cloud of language that shows that the grasshopper has deliberately invaded his privacy. The poet feels intimidated by the presence of being of the grasshopper. Being of the grasshopper is examined in the topology of language as the presence of existence of consciousness negating the being of the grasshopper in impersonal language. For example, ‘you mind your business and I will mind my own’. Consciousness becomes a literary instrument of ‘nothingness’, put in Sartre’s language. The surprise of finding the grasshopper does not become an adornment of delight but becomes a literary vehicle for the expression of angst. There’s an existential mysticism of language being put in the hyperbole of machinery. Is the poet a punk of being a mechanized saint? Caution, suspicion and the spirit of unwelcoming are other existential gestures conveyed through the language of the poet. The grasshopper is the poet’s existential other. The poet traps the grasshopper in the language of another who’s traumatized in the world of words.


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Famous Poets Quotations – Top 30 Poetry Quotations by Famous Poets

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  1. “For this reason poetry is something more philosophical and more worthy of serious attention than history.”
    — Aristotle
  2. “Every American poet feels that the whole responsibility for contemporary poetry has fallen upon his shoulders, that he is a literary aristocracy of one.”
    — W. H. Auden
  3. “Eloquence is the poetry of prose.”
    — William C. Bryant
  4. “If I feel physically as if the top of my head were taken off, I know that is poetry.”
    — Emily Dickinson
  5. “How poetry comes to the poet is a mystery.”
    — Elizabeth Drew
  6. “She opened up a book of poems and handed it to me written by an Italian poet from the 13th century and every one of them words rang true and glowed like burning coal pouring off of every page like it was written in my soul from me to you.”
    — Bob Dylan
  7. “When a poet’s mind is perfectly equipped for its work, it is constantly amalgamating disparate experiences.”
    — T S Eliot
  8. “Painting was called silent poetry and poetry speaking painting.”
    — Ralph Waldo Emerson
  9. “Only poetry inspires poetry.”
    — Ralph Waldo Emerson
  10. “Poetry is a way of taking life by the throat.”
    — Robert Frost
  11. “The man is either mad, or he is making verses.”
    — Horace
  12. “Good religious poetry . . . is likely to be most justly appreciated and most discriminately relished by the undevout.”
    — A. E. Housman
  13. “I did not believe political directives could be successfully applied to creative writing . . . not to poetry or fiction, which to be valid had to express as truthfully as possible the individual emotions and reactions of the writer.”
    — Langston Hughes
  14. “I went for years not finishing anything. Because, of course, when you finish something you can be judged . . . I had poems which were re-written so many times I suspect it was just a way of avoiding sending them out.”
    — Erica Jong
  15. “As I am a poet I express what I believe, and I fight against whatever I oppose, in poetry.”
    — June Jordan
  16. “Poetry, even when apparently most fantastic, is always a revolt against artifice, a revolt, in a sense, against actuality.”
    — James Joyce
  17. “Poetry should surprise by a fine excess and not by singularity –it should strike the reader as a wording of his own highest thoughts, and appear almost a remembrance.”
    — John Keats
  18. “Conventional wisdom notwithstanding, there is no reason either in football or in poetry why the two should not meet in a man’s life if he has the weight and cares about the words.”
    — Archibald MacLeish
  19. “I see no reason for calling my work poetry except that there is no other category in which to put it.”
    — Marianne Moore
  20. “I’ve never read a political poem that’s accomplished anything. Poetry makes things happen, but rarely what the poet wants.”
    — Howard Nemerov
  21. “And he whose fustian’s so sublimely bad/ It is not poetry, but prose run mad.”
    — Alexander Pope
  22. “I have written some poetry that I don’t understand myself.”
    — Carl Sandburg
  23. “Poetry is the record of the best and happiest moments of the happiest and best minds.”
    — Percy Bysshe Shelley
  24. “Great poetry is always written by somebody straining to go beyond what he can do.”
    — Stephen Spender
  25. “I owe everything to a system that made me learn by heart till I wept. As a result I have thousands of lines of poetry by heart. I owe everything to this.”
    — George Steiner
  26. “Everything is complicated; if that we not so, life and poetry and everything else would be a bore.”
    — Wallace Stevens
  27. “Good poetry seems too simple and natural a thing that when we meet it we wonder that all men are not always poets. Poetry is nothing but healthy speech.”
    — Henry David Thoreau
  28. “How do poems grow? They grow out of your life.”
    — Robert Penn Warren
  29. “All good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquillity.”
    — William Wordsworth
  30. “A poet’s autobiography is his poetry. Anything else can be only a footnote.”
    — Yevgeny Yevtushenko


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Keats’ Conflict Between the World of Imagination and the World of Reality

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John Keats, an Escapist, tearing with the sufferings of life, escapes form the real world to the realm of the imagination. But there is a striking contrast between the world of reality, in which the poet lives really, and the world of the imagination where he wants to be. Now we will discuss the conflict between these two worlds as we found it in his poems, especially “Ode on a Grecian Urn”, “Ode to the Nightingale” and “Ode to melancholy.”

in the world real, happiness, beauty, love and youth is transient in imaginary world everything is beautiful and permanent. “Ode to the Nightingale” shows a conflict clear between happiness and immortality of the species and of the misery and the mortality of human life. The poem begins with a description of the effect of the song of a Nightingale in the body and the soul of the poet. As the poet says:

“my heart and a drowsy numbness pains.

my sense as though of hemlock had drunk “

the song of the Nightingale, the poet, is a symbol of eternal joy.” The world of the Nightingale is the ideal to him. Fatigue, fever and the fret of reality made him unhappy. Want to disappear to dissolve in the real world where as the poet says:

“… Youth grows pale and thin the spectrum and dies,

where but it’s to be full of sadness”

by which to be free from the belter and painful reality of life the poet wants to escape to the forest dream with Nightingale. As he says;

“away! Away! To fly to you “

in its forest of imagination, the poet is sensual enjoyment of his life that he wants to have in an ideal world.” This extremity of joy also reminds you of the death. As we see in the poem:

“now more then ever seems rich to die.” “

in such ecstasy.”

the poet now contrasts the mortality of the human being with the immortality of the Nightingale. The song of the Nightingale, the poet heard today was heard in the old time by emperors and clowns. Also heard in the land of the fairies where-

“… tables casements, opening of dangerous seas, land of fairy foam

is the magic.”

the same world ‘forlorn’ as a campaign brings back form world fency to the real world. It is the poet, like a dream. As he says;

“was a vision or a dream walking? “

run away is making music wake or sleep”.

by that in the poem are a dynamic contrast between an imaginary world and the real world full of pain.

as an in ‘ Ode to the Nightingale, in the poem “Ode on a Grecian Urn” Weir find a contrast between the permanence of purity, beauty and joy in the ballot box and the storms of the joy of the world read. As says the poet;

you were still made to bride of quietness! “

Te foster child of silence and cal slow”.

in the imaginative world of art the bride is Virgin for ever, but the world is real is impossible.

Keats also contrasts the permanence of art with the fleeting nature of real life. As the poet, says

“she cannot fade,… always with your love, and she be fair.”

in life real beauty and love are short in duration. Here the beloved ages with the passing of the years and loses its beauty. But the girl in the URN, which is a work of art, never aging and stay young forever.

“Ode to melancholy” is another poem with the odd dilemma of life. The poet says that the melancholy lives in beauty and happiness. We enjoy when they think that it will end soon. The duration of the beauty makes us unhappy.

melancholic, according to the poet-

«Mora with beauty that must die».

the poet, melancholy Mora with the goddess of pleasure in the same Temple. As says the poet;

“… in the same Temple of pleasure veiled melancholy…”

shows the relationship between pain and pleasure, joy and sadness of the transience and permanence.

we can finally say that the world of the imagination we can accommodate for a short time, but can not give us better reality solution. So everyone has to face the contrast between these worlds and finally return to the real world.


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Appreciation of Poetry

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many students must write a literary essay based on the appreciation of poetry. To make the task more enjoyable, we need to define poetry. What is poetry? Edmund Clarence Stedman said the following: “poetry is language rhythmic, imaginative, expressing the invention, flavor, thinking, passion and knowledge of the human soul”.

the poetry is the creativity of the imagination of a person. Like any other literary work, it should be understood to be appreciated. The writer writes for a reason. Its purpose can be evoke emotion, inform, define, represent something of the world or life, entertain… In any case, a poem is unique to its writer. And each poem can be analyzed to be appreciated. Here are some ideas General to help you understand the poem are reading:

  1. subject: try to summarize the subject of the poem. You need to look at what is being described. It could be a place, an event, a person, a situation or an experience. What the poet want you to focus in the poem and each stanza?

  2. subject: once you have identified the subject of the poem, try and find out what the poet wants to tell you. Look at the following: message of the poet; its purpose; ideas that is transporting; the title; and the type of poem (IE, sonnet, ballad, lyrical, reflective monologue, Elegy and narrative, descriptive, a combination of different types). Always remember that feeling and work hand in hand with the subject and the subject of tone.
  3. structure: the form of the poem is very important. By now, you should know what type of poem is: for example, ballad, epic, Ode, sonnet, dramatic monologue, elegy, etc. Discuss your knowledge of the structure of the poem in the trial
  4. rhythm: look at the flow of the poem through line patterns. Are they regular or irregular? If they are regular, it remains the same through the poem metro? (M: pattern of rhythmic beats per line; stressed and unstressed words that make up the rhythm of the poem, stating, for example, slow or fast.) If there are changes to the subway, to analyze where the changes are. Try to find the reason for the change. What effect does this change in the poem?
  5. rhyme: the poem has a game plan? The poet has written in free verse, blank verse; do you use par rhyme, rhyme or broken rhyme? Use half rhyme, near rhyme, half rhyme rhyme or end? Would the poet underline words or the message using the rhyme scheme? What is the purpose and effect of rhyme scheme? Pause and punctuation have an effect on the structure, rhythm and rhyme in a poem.
  6. images: there are several ways to paint a picture in the mind of the reader through the use of words. See figurative devices and used in the poem sounds. They are visual imagery, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, olfactory or gustatory?
  7. diction: the words used and the way in which they are placed can enhance the power of the creativity of the poet. Remember that investment, hyperbole, understatement, irony, sarcasm, rhetorical questions and other poetic techniques that can bring meaning to the poem. When you write your essay, you only need to speak of images, audio devices and figurative, as well as the diction; no need to explain why the poet has used the technique or if it is effective or not.
  8. general impression: give your opinion about the poem in general and what effect has had on you. Did you like it or not? Remember to use quotation marks when it is quoting the poem.

to read and appreciate more poetry, you will discover that education is complying with the study of poetry. Once you start to understand poems, be enriched in many ways. Poetry improves character. Keep trying it. Success lies above all in the love of literature, and then can be found in the understanding and interpretation of texts.


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The Study of Poetry

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literary criticism is, like Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), the Victorian poet and critic points out, a “selfless to learn and propagate effort” the best that is known and thought in the world. And he strove hard to meet this goal in his critical writings. Giving primary importance to poetry in his essay “The study of poetry”, sees the poet as a seer. Without poetry, science is incomplete, and much of the religion and philosophy in the future would be replaced by poetry. Such, in their estimation, are the high destiny of poetry.

Arnold says that literature, and especially poetry, is “Criticism of life”. In poetry, this critique of life must comply with the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty. Truth and the seriousness of the matter, happiness and perfection of diction and the form as outlined in the best poets, are what constitutes a critique of life.

poetry, says Arnold, interprets life in two ways: “poetry is interpretative for having natural magic in it and the moral depth”. And so the poet must aim high and excellent reliability in everything what is written. This demand has two essential qualities. The first is the choice of excellent performances. The poet must choose those that more powerfully the great primary human feelings that remain permanently in the race. The gist of the second is what Arnold calls the great style – the perfection of form, the choice of words, from his force directly pregnancy of matter that transports.

this, then, is conception of Arnold of the nature and mission of true poetry. And by its general principles – the “touchstone method” – introduced scientific objectivity to critical evaluation by providing comparison and analysis as the two main tools to judge individual poets. Thus, Shelley, Chaucer, Dryden and Pope fall short of the best, because they have “high seriousness”. Even Shakespeare thinks too much expression and very little of the conception. Ideal poets of Arnold are Homer and Sophocles in the ancient world, Dante and Milton and among modern, Goethe and Wordsworth. Arnold puts Wordsworth in the front row not by his poetry but for his “criticism of life”. It is curious that Byron is placed above Shelley. Inordinate love of Arnold of classicism made him blind to the beauty of poetry, and we cannot accept the vision of Arnold that the poetry of Shelley is less satisfactory than his writings in prose.

critique of Arnold’s life is often marred by his naive moralism, their inadequate perception of the relationship between art and morality and its uncritical admiration of what he regards as the sanity of gold of the ancient Greeks. For all his defense of disinterest, Arnold could not practice the disinterest in their essays. In his essay on Shelley in particular, displays a lamentable lack of disinterest. Shelley moral opinions were too much for the Victorian Arnold. In his essay on Keats also Arnold could not be disinterested. The sentimental letters of Keats to Fanny Brawne was too much for him. But the insistence of Arnold in the rules and their concern about the relationship between poetry and life made him one of the greatest modern critics.


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My Opinions on Poetry (A Personal Review of Poetry)

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index

Introduction: what does the poesia-poesia do?

comment: perhaps my style

verse

free

definition of poetry

definition of poetry II (effect)

substance of a poem

the world of art in words

excitation independent

in the form of poetry figurative language

what confessional poetry?

poetry reading understand poets introduction

which makes the poesia-poesia?

search in my mente-ojos, so you can make splendid poetry is: symbolism, irony, likeness, metaphor, arrangement of meter, expression, confession, spontaneity, but at the end of the poem – as at the end of a day – when the reader looks back and all is said and done, you have to ask, “has affected me?” if not – why? A poem should be some kind of chill, if not, some kind of voice to the reader. Again I say to myself, if not, go to the page of the book or the following poem, each poem might not be suitable for you, as all a singer sings the song is not necessarily the song which influences you.

poetry at its most raw and rare form and more perverse, is spontaneity.

maybe my style

comment on poetry

prefer to swell the ranks of the naturalness, spontaneity, free of couplets rhymed, romanticism and passion, leave the Elizabethans. I prefer to spend some of the 11th century, or just before that time, when rhyme was being modernized, but not the whole instead. There, there was a world of nature and mysteries and emotions to be written, said, and stories to be transmitted and stored: address times, cultures and heroes; and by what should I take that period, with my time and mix with fragments and dreams and all those things and that the dead bury to them dead. Allow reproduces artificial half the literature (it will make of all modes) and my class the other half. It can be difficult to live in a world where the critics who write mostly critical, discard, dignity, manners, this is perhaps a strong protest against all those things, but poets must reaffirm their right to represent the world, in a tone clear and genuine, is our duty. We are only passing through, leaving behind what we write (infecting minds, or produce health), always angry citizens will get its full of whatever, but those who do not wish to have his collected pockets, expects us to disseminate literature which is filled with thoughts of those things that I have already mentioned the swimming. And to these readers and the generations by come, write.

free verse: poetry today, often has no voice, theme, or even recognizable form. We call this verse free, that is the way dominant of the Postmodernity; prior to this, we have had of what was called modernism, where we have reviewed what poetry is.

definition of poetry I: every poem is a story, a short story, which involves the density of the language and the intensity of the projection of images, or images (mental images); and descriptive character, metaphors, similes (comparisons).

(definition of poetry II) effect as a poet, need to ask ‘ got the effect I wanted out of my poetry?’ maybe he did, and if so, you are on the right track. I mean never I ask someone this, I hear something to see what they say about my poetry, and then I can answer the question I.

substance of the poem

a poem must have substance to survive…! This substance is on the topic and the understanding of the poem.

– to write a poem, like everything in life, one must have a plan, the destination (where do you want take your reader?), again, this is part of the substance, which will be released later.

– a poem is perhaps the secret life of the poet; It may be his twin black, its independent self – this is often the case. Thus, the poet and the poem become more than one enigma of the despair that a work of art.

the world of art in words

the world of art in words, has a meaning defined for me; It is a romance, produced during the stages of creation. As a book. As I write it, refine it, test it, and then finally victory – a romance of opening and closing has taken place. Idleness never participates, is a horrible sin, an enemy of the soul. Man should not be idle, if so, the ghost does not leave him, not art.

the world of art in words

artist appeared on Earth

from the Sea-

the Sun passed over it,

came out just for a moment

a words.

#1718 05/03/2007

excitation independent

If you are looking for the poet within the poem, look the background that fits, the continuous feeling of touch, should be everywhere, but rarely has anyone looking for it, is called independent excitation; or art poetry. Yeats used it. If you missed the source of beauty and riming precisely in the poem, which sometimes is called ‘duty’, go back and look, if necessary. Not often used as it used to, and for various reasons, do not take pleasure in everyday life.

in

people form of poetry becomes obsessed with structure, trying to choose the correct shape you want to use in poetry (perhaps trying to learn their style or approach in the process). I prefer to let go and mix an idea or event in the following, to avoid losing the soul of it trying to fit into something that should never have been.

attempt to listen to my voice, speech within me, if I can find the silence, you will find the voice with no pretense and within that voice, are the syllables, letters, words, rhyming, and other elements of poetry may want to use.

would language figurative [](An Example) 19459005: language figurative, meaning of words used for refer is to something that really not wants to tell, is used here for make noises, as are metaphors sometimes

derived of echoes

I would like to show you love in a handful of clouds-

could I find them clouds and find the love

and is the love really is seeks?

Angels fallen from Heaven

love and chose Lust instead of the Earth…!

in the hell one loves the lust and therefore, would be

unhappy in the sky I guess…

Ah! Perhaps the allusions is the strand that are

looking for…? We are living for…

live in the era of the imagined howling

… with pains in the mind

fear of muerte-ninfas (well dressed)

teachers serving children a blotted

light; perfect pitch, more questions than

answer; disrupting the harmonic balance!…

(perhaps under all this is love).

#728 6/2005

what confessional poetry?

((Y por qué escribe?)) (01/03/2007))

what confessional poetry? It is when he set himself for the great fall, when get dare to all. Sylvia Plath, Anne Saxton, pervert Allen Ginsberg; Robert Lowell, I have several books, was a little quiet in his verses to the poets that I have just mentioned. Often used the ‘I’ or ‘You’ in the confessional poetry. Finding most of this poetry is unflattering, and this is why I don’t do much of it; It was not meant to be. It is usually personal and autobiographical. The poet is generally speaking to you directly, the reader.

when Leo to Plath, his confessional style seems more fantasy than fiction, but whatever it is, it is his soul speaking; forget the themes and the theme in confessional poetry, explores some details, processes beyond emotions, events, the author really explore and process your life ahead of you.

has been raised the question, “why write you?” and a trade fair must be the answer perhaps more than one psychologist, a poet, for sometimes one needs to be brutally honest. It seems to me that you clear the brain and make a guilt more opaque. Often times more you write something, the less powerful is. A way of processing the pain.

poetry reading

in reading poetry, first read little by little, give your attention, as it does when you eat dinner, then slowly read it a second time, with a mind open, third, read it again, this time, as it would be to read prose, now jump to you.

many poems are complex and perhaps ambiguous, if they are too much for you, trash them (unless you want to suffer through them, then are pidiendor for pain and you can get it).

know the poet who is reading, its history will help you understand why is writing like him, his mind will perhaps come more clear to yours.

to get rid of your preconceived ideas (bias and so on) read-enjoy the experience. If you like poetry and not the poet, because of your prejudice, you have a problem.

understanding of the poets

– to understand any poetry or poets, one must have experienced what the poet ha-identicas experiences; or should be formed as poet-, the exceptions are of the old school of poetry and one shoe fits all (endeavors, understand the theme, plot, and vision of poetry becomes much easier); of the contemporary scene, you must have the same size of the shoe of the poet to understand where the poet you are guiding, and in poetry poet must have a destination to the reader – so you don’t (and should be).

– the poet perhaps survives because he or she is unconscious (or not connected) to the world and all its compulsions (suicide is often on the other side of this coin, if not drugs and alcohol).

-poetry has accomplished something if it makes to one reflect about it…; stretching this a bit more, (it appears) comes a day (not so far in the future), when poets do not even need to know anything about literature (but not today); However, poetry is (or should be) considered to be the highest form of literature.

-the most poets write about love and death-that perhaps are the two main ingredients (or themes) to the poetry; some write about those problems social, that makes poetry bad; but it is “Beauty” that shines above all, and which is often, too often looked rather than personal interest, or a combination of the confused delirious negative thoughts put in writing by a poet under the influence of some kind of chemical. You can get a high beauty that surrounds them.

latest words: as poets not must forget, that influence in them people, young in particular and duty an obligation (not duty), a good example by our form of live and write.


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What Are the Benefits of Scented Candles?

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Fragrant candles unquestionably are a marvelous accessory for any bed room. They appear in quite a few forms, finishes, aromas and perfumes. You can get a gentle ethereal fragrance or even a much more fragrant much more considerable essence. There is one thing for all. Even perfumes of the vacations can be additional to your furnishings.

The economical fragrant candles are a great deal of occasions just about every little bit as good or a great deal far better than the superior priced brands. Even the soy scented candles are very aromatic. The less pricey candles past just as long, and they are frequently pretty pleasant to scent if you enter a place.

There is not any purpose to buy a manufacturer title if the high-quality of the less costly product or service is the very same. You can get ornamental, scented candles or regular candles. There are various options that you may possibly pick from and it is really effortless to match them to the model and style or decor of the place. Even inserts or teacups are observed in a myriad of aromas and blends. All shades, dimensions and shapes can be observed.

Talking about soy candles, these are the most effective choice and they also do not charge a fortune. They will burn off up gradual and there is no wax wasted from them. Soy candles burn off pretty clear far too. They are just the far better substitute all all around if you will need amazing smelling superior high-quality candles that will in fact past. The solutions are also outstanding when you are in a position to choose from triple scented candles and permanently candles just to title some.

There are various functions for these great for a longer period lasting candles. Just one choice is the gentle essence of linden as you are stress-free in a bubble bathtub appropriate soon after a long day at your office. It can be a tranquil and tranquil essence which can enable you loosen up. They may possibly be wonderful to include appropriate into a centerpiece for a social accumulating a total bunch much more.

You never ever know accurately what specials and gains you can find for fragrant soy candles on the internet. When you have made use of these candles you may possibly not want to consider something else. They go away no place for improvement, and you will unquestionably conclude up finding your money’s value.

Verify out your personal choices currently. You are going to find a good deal which will function for you. No matter whether you are making use of them for dwelling decor or scent, selecting the soy choice is heading to provide you with a long-lasting great aroma you will be sure to genuinely like.

The Plastic Ball Shaped Mold talked about in this article can be observed at Amazon

Robert Harrick As a Cavalier Poet

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‘Delight in disorder’ is an exquisite poem of the English literature by the poet Roberto Cavalier Herrick (1591-1674). The poem draws the heart of every reader for its lyrical quality and end rhyme harmonious. In the poem the poet expresses his feelings of extreme happiness, which derives the disorderly dress of a woman.

now discuss the ‘Cavalier poet’. Really the world ‘ Cavalier’ Latin version of Charles ‘Carolus’ comes from. ” The reign of Charles (1625-1649) was the time of ‘English Civil war’. Fighting between supporters of the name King ‘Gentlemen’ and supporters of the Parliament known as the “Round head”. However, a group of lyric poets than pottery associated with the ‘Knights’ are called the Cavalier poets, for example, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew, and sir Johan Suckling. These poets also are called ‘Sons of Ben’ as they were admirers and followers of Ben Jonson. Usually wrote short lyrical poems generally in the lighter vein, gay, trivial, witty and often licentious. The main object of his poems was the ‘woman and beauty’.

Robert Herrick was, indeed, a Cavalier poet. Because his poetry especially ‘delight in disorder’ has all the characteristics of the writings of the Cavalier poet. If we look at the poem, we must get the evidence in favor.

the poem ‘Delight in disorder’ is particularly short in length and very witty as well as licentious in the subject. It is the description of a disorderly dressed Lady. The name of the Lady is probably ‘Julia’.

very beginning of the poem, we see that the poet traces to a disorder in the grass which is carelessly thrown over the shoulders. He says the poet;

“a lawn on the shoulders of thrown
a good distraction;”

grass must be secured with the shoulders. But lady you are free to your neck. This is the source of joy for the poet.

then, the poet found another disorder in the stomacher. As the poet described:
“a bug that lace here and there
Enthralls the Crimson stomacher.”

Thirdly, the poet obtained a more disorder in his bracelet which is used carelessly in the hand of the Lady. As the poet narrates:
“a fist negligent and thereby;

tape to flow confusedly”.

Fourth poet note a disorder in Lady petticoat. In the discourse of the poet:
“a winning wave, deserve notice,
in the tempestuous petticoat;”

the petticoat must bind well with the body, but giving up the skirt of the Lady in the air. The poet thinks it’s a lovely meter.

Finally, the poet discovers a disorder in your very small. As the poet;

“a very small mistake in whose tie
I see a wild civility:” usually, disorder

makes a disgusted man, but in the case of poet makes pleased as he says;

‘do more bewitch’ me ‘ when
art is too precise in every part.

in conclusion to say that Robert Herrick, poet arrogant, very successfully breaks the traditional concept that enjoyment can only be found in harmony through the poem “delight in disorder” also has a musical quality and end rhyme melodious. So ale considering these things, it can be considered the best example of his poetic intelligence.


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The Great Tamil Poet – Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathiar

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‘Bharathiyar’ is the name that reminded the Indians of nationalism, patriotism and Tamil prose and poetry. Born in 1882 he was conferred the title of ‘Bharati’ for his poetic talents at an early age. Bharati emerged as a poet prolific, earning the name of ‘Mahakavi’, which means a great poet. He died at the age of 39, but in its short life it had immeasurable contribution to your country and language.

life of a Patriot

lived in the tumultuous years of struggle for the freedom of our country. I had known to his contemporaries who influenced his political thinking as Mahatma Gandhi, Tilak, sister Nivedita, Aurobindo Gosh, VVS Iyer and Lajpat Roy. The Tamil poet and writer life is an example of maintaining the spirit of freedom, equality, justice and love despite poverty and against the oppressive British rule. Assistant editor of ‘Swadesamithran’ was a Tamil daily from 1904 to 1907. Launch Indio weekly Tamil which was the editor and edited a newspaper ‘Bala Bharatam’ in English. He had a turbulent life with living in exile, arrest, being imprisoned in the midst of extreme poverty. He continued as editor of Swadesamithran a year before his death in 1921. Social reformer

their noble dreams about our society and the country came out brightly in their songs and prose. He had the ability to use his literary skills to the best turn on the patriotic sentiment of the masses and on the ills of society that all their problems.

Patriot proudly proclaims

that there is no other country in the world can match the greatness of the India that has the Himalyan mountains, the sacred River Ganges and the Upanishads in their song “Mannum Imaya malai’ and ‘paarukkule nalla naadu’.” It is equally proud of the richness and sweetness of the language of the Tamil ‘yamarindha mozhiugalile’ lines. Proclaimed with equal pride the wealth and the uniqueness of the language Tamil.

advocates for freedom and society has

fearless wrote about freedom for individuals as well as Nations being influenced by ‘Vande Mataram’ patriotic song of Bankim Chandra. These meetings have injected courage in his writing. Considering this to be a divine inspiration went on to write revolutionary compositions which is filled with national unity and the spirit of freedom that his songs brought a spiritual dimension to the freedom of movement. ‘Swathesa Geethangal’ and ‘Janma Bhoomi’ dedicated to sister Nivedita are examples of his patriotic songs and serve the most disadvantaged and the emancipation of women. They were distributed to the people during the liberation movement of the India. Your dream of a free India and a society which is educated, devoid of its social ills and live in harmony. We can see that many of their dreams are coming true today. His writings when he was in exile in Puduchery were so powerful that the British was even imprisoned.

his songs for children ‘Paappa Paattu’ and ‘Pudhiya Aathichoodi’ evoked a sense of equality, love towards all living beings, society has and courage etc. His simple words communicate the ethical and moral principles to young minds without effort. His style was simple with a technique of weaving the spoken language and rhythm in poetry and beautiful prose.

the literary genius Bharati has made an indelible mark in the minds of millions of the Tamil people through his writing, which includes novels, short stories, essays and poetry.

you can download poems of Subramanya Bharatiyar free in Sangapalagai.com.


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O P Bhatnagar – A Poet of Political Awakening

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P Bhatnagar is one of the most leading voices of Indian English poetry whose thinking collections poems (1976), sense of fossils (1977), Angels retreat (no date), the Audible landscape, Oneric visions, bespeak generate shadows in floodlight illumination (1984) and cooling the flames of darkness (2001) of the political consciousness of the poet. As that is made clear cut Indian English poetry can never stay away from the political and social atmosphere of the India and poets not writing under a unique formula but rather a dialogue between man and man so Bhatnagar also addresses a number of issues in our society and politics. Comments by Dr. A.N. Dwivedi:

“Bhatnagar poetry covers a wide range of topics which focus directly on the length of your experience and the solemnity of his involvement in the Affairs of life”. (CIE217)

Bhatnagar approach of political issue is firmer and larger than any other Indian English poet has touched nearly every aspect of the political scene. Dr.V.K.Singh notes:
“we are Bhatnagar a frank analysis of the facts of contemporary life. Bhatnagar descants in countless aspects of political life existing nowadays. No outstanding feature escapes his eye very demanding. Bhatnagar breaks open the sine of various political enigmas. It reflects that we have before us is that of all the political problems.” (152)

as electoral issues, bribery, corruption and criminalization of politics, rampant corruption among leaders degrade the character of national leaders, Division of society by castism, communalism, linguism, and regionalism etc. and the total loss of values in politics are touched by the poet in an extremely sensitive and extremely sarcastic way that not yet is to be overcome by any poet of Indian English poetry. His claim of that ‘Indian poetry in English have to be Indian’ not can be ignored if we want to promote the literature of the India. Simply copy and deal with English and English literature are insufficient because India sensitivity is not suffering with the dearth of thoughts, emotions and sensitivity and because it has its foundation potential voice and vitality. Dr. R.C. Sharma is right when he says:

“the reason why Bhatnagar advocates make India poetry in English is riddled with conflicts and concerns;” and these conflicts and concerns are basically Indians. Bhatnagar is conscious of the environment in which the Indian poet in English lives as well as the duty of the Indian poet in English has to carry out.” (79)

O.P.Bhatnagar has dealt with a number of issues such as social consciousness, political consciousness, love, nature, philosophy and the Indianness. According to Dr. A. N. Dwivedi:

Bhatnagar poetry covers a wide range of topics, focusing directly on the extent of their experience the solemnityof their participation in the Affairs of his life. (CIE, 217)

thus Bhatnagar understands rhythm and the temperature of its time and therefore organizes his poetry. Try Bhatnagar with the theme of the policy is real and many. Various social problems which agitate the conscience of man are the themes of his poetry and he tries to shed much light on all of them. S.C.Bose notes:

“the poetry of O.P.Bhatnagar that in fact has many dimensions is also important as poetry of political consciousness”. (V. V., 29)

franco of the fact of contemporary life analysis and the picturesque layout make his vibrant poetry and attractive. According to Bhatnagar:

“the most vital areas of life are today governed by the quality of political life and environment are creating and living. Policy has now replaced our religious way of life. “We are fast being refers to a kind of nationalism that can define our roles and responsibilities in the realization of the fate of our nation in the future”. «Introduction», 8 (RC)

according to Bhatnagar:

Indiana English poetry should concern especially to the social and political life of the people of the India and, ‘ they must democratize their concerns and relations with society and be a source of expectations shared… that should throw light on the degeneration and corruption corrodes the identities. Talk of total loss of moral values, the darkness and the frustrations that permeates the national scene”. (RC, ‘ 9 Introduction)

poetry to Bhatnagar is a constant search and effort to symbolize for a best .to socio-political life, is ‘ a conscious art shaped by constant practice refined and enhanced through the vision itself. Like life itself, is the work of a gardener who after removing all weeds grown in the end growth and flowering. As such there is no influence of any particular thought his poetry in school. It is entirely his propia-un experiment staff inspired by age, area, time and especially by the human condition.

the first collection of poems of thought Bhatnagar (1976) has a lot of poems of political consciousness. The rich’s poems in the lack of content of thought in the excitement as the romantic poets, but the first poem of the collection see the process of poetic creation. Bhatnagar writes:

“poetry of meaning
as a deity in consecrated
words, the construction of the building.” (EDUCATION, 5)

Bhatnagar sheds sufficient light on the question of God, which cannot be resolved in the round the temple by the worshiper. God is a meaning and a deity enshrined in the words of the poem, the artist can only expose and seek him:

“can go round and round the Temple
but never be close to God.

we can go round and rand an idea
but never around than a thought.” (ibid. 5)

in one of his poems, predicts the future as bleak as the present:

– future appearance disappeared
as cactus flowers after the dawn
los Santos of bars, brothels and night clubs tasting
casinos and underworld
to turn moral, values and virtues to ice cream
holes for fun loving childness in cones. (EDUCATION, 10)

in the poem the new scale Bhatnagar tries to balance between a man meat is another man’s poison. The poet is the worn dictum in the modern context ‘a simple and honest man measuring spoons value life as it is dishonesty the best form of life’. The harsh reality of life can be seen as:

“a simple and honest man
in a worn mode may
still himself find life of measurement
ladles of value
bribery, corruption and counterfeiting

for him, a bitter poison.” (T.P., 12)

Bhatnagar wishes to say to that she is that accumulate wealth are the little interest with the interest with peers, nor feel any immorality indeed quite contrary to the code of conduct. In another poem ‘A Oh of wonder’, Bhatnagar expresses our feelings and helpless attitude. The poet regrets the diversity, disintegration that our country has today. The emphasis of the poet is more than nationality, a sense and an attitude. This idea is written by the poet as:

“ours is a multiheaded
country look in no particular direction
Trimurti is a vision all included
from here to eternity resurrected
telling the story of our frivolity.” (T.P., 14)

also in the ‘Country’s attention bonds’ poem the poet says about the loyalty and patriotism of those Indians that have been accumulating wealth, vanity and arrogance for his services to countries to those who have immigrated. These so-called loyal citizens and tireless Patriots visit India for its own cause:

“loyal citizens proud Patriots
never forget caring for his country
and fly back home from time to time
whether to choose a bride as a Prince
or buy a few country a gem of the Earth
put his Kingdom in a security sealed
bands with the guarantee of faithful with a wink
” “which although is does not belong to this country
insurance belonging to his empire.” (T. p., 15)

the second collection of fossils of sentiment has also some poems of political interest. Bhatnagar, despite the policy of an indirect way just not pin point very rare phenomena that somehow remain hidden from the eyes of those who have specialized in the game of politics. ‘Crossing the bar’ is realistic poem plaguing modern politics. His commentary on modern politics is worth quoting:

«moral as
thick as forests
do not let light;»

the game is rare loyalties Hunt

for the romance”. (F(F), 16)

another remarkable poem ‘ The no man’s land’ expresses the idea that freedom has not brought any racial change in the lives of people who are still living in the dark Dungeon of poverty, illiteracy, and justice. The liberation movement was raised by the masses, but only few privileged men arose to control. And when the efforts and sacrifices of the masses those privileged few captured thrown were success the country continued the judgment on the nation in the garb of democracy. By what feels good poet:

“before that the
British land was not ours:
after left,
was not our also
Earth is
to those who govern;”

the others will simply inherit
no man’s land.” (FF, 19)

the third withdrawal angles collection has a number of thought provoking poems in which the poet explores the meaning of time as assessed from the events of the cave of materialism combines hypocrisy. The tone of the poet in this collection is satirical and ironic. In the poem ‘history is a sentence go round’ the poet wishes to propose that historians often ignore the importance of the population in general and tend to magnify the facts of some privileged men. Political sycophants have no other way to the pages of history. Historians believe that his work in the register of titles and torture serve the cause of national unity and security and they are aided by political sycophants:

“political sycophants are his assistants
whose seductive predictions
fire to eat and carry out
shows Japanese fire
walk to dazzle already stunned”. (AR, 40)

However the fawning and political leaders forget that tyrants and blood suckers have to face a fall:

“too much repression and much POLITICKING enzymes
own
defeat forcing masses
forge in the smithy of his conscience
invisible weapons of his conscience
weapons invisible of his shame of Coronation of autumn
on the fronts of tyrants
and nail bitter truths
in” crossing times.” (A.R.41)

‘beggars can be Choosers’ it is a notable poem in which the poet extends its sympathy to the deceased poor, homeless and proposed that begging is not an evil which is harbored by shallow careerists, dare devil smugglers and deceit sells. Beggars are far from the medical condition of tension, alienation and loss of identity and the poet concludes:

“my humanitarian approach
seemed a grunt I
and my reformist zeal zeal beggars celluloid
little Dame account that can also be choosers
and
just under command the way we misunderstand one another
to keep our irrational ways are
that the deception without end
” put an end to forms of our destiny”. (AR, 43)

Similarly, in another poem ‘Thoughts on the day of elections A’ is another poem of political consciousness in which the poet ridiculed and paints a picture very vivid and realistic of the ignorant voters and officials can read and write as follows:

“ignorant in their routine
tail voters dreams
and a second passion
get rid of the symbols of sealing of indecision oscitant
for men.”

with a handful of literate people sealed illiterate favors in boxes of steel

and recording proud survey
percentage very about the polls
Queen as mourners retreated from their funerals.” (A.R., 46)

the hope of new political miracles after such democratic phenomena in every five years is finally interpreted by the poet who wants to say that democracy is nothing but the ugly face of oppression and injustice.

the fourth collection of verse Oneric visions indirectly reflects on the themes of the policy in which several fragments related to political consciousness are scattered on the volume. For example in the poem ‘if one starts asking questions like Hamlet’ the poet gives a reference to policy:

“fanatic erecting marble statues
of their heroes transitional
in the evanescent route times-
some whispering revolution
others proclaiming peace-
leaving the Sun with umbrellas to the common man
for elbow.” (V.O. 25)

in ‘who’s afraid of fear’ idea of the poet on the magnitude of the evils that say about the nature of the policy is expressed by the poet:

“to raise the specter of hooligans
smugglers hoarders and Santo-rodillos of a spicy denial of his betrayal

and evoke the deformed appearances
of men who wished to govern
or the man who could simply not be men
and as a” Shikhandi
the Branding sun shade

Sin

complain drop
bent with an old dream
morality of cleaning such as beauty
discarded by actors with cold cream. “(O.V., 35)

the concept of Gandhian non-violence is very well expressed in the poem ‘Non-Niolence and violence’.” As Gandhi, Bhatnagar feels that even violence has no limits:

“if one hits you once
that invite him to do it again:
if one takes off his shirt
offer to eliminate what is left.” (O.V., 35)

but is not virtually non-violence but a shortage of wisdom the poet suggests something:

“with the ideals that is folded like umbrella
one can save a day of rain
and enjoy violence for fun
but wrinkled dialectic of violence
is a little too monotonous
to ikebana of horror Unrelieved
and
unemployed’s sense of humor
it is worthwhile.” (O.V., 43)

the shadows of the collection in focus has several poems of depth and the observation that the poet turns philosophical as analytical. In the poem ‘ poverty, revolutions and dreams ‘ the poet argues with reason:

not appreciate poetry as its content
as Vice more than its purity
and frustrations behave a wfore:
for the poetry itself is a revolution
undreamt-of of in dream undreams. “(S.F., 17)

but the scene lives in another poem the poet presents the image of the modern India saying:

” the scene of life in my country
applies only to granite eyes Insensitive
and
resistant to our visions to reveal. “” (SF, 20)

and adds:

“is a scene where utopia and epic
are merging in a palpable chaos
adventure overrunning freedom
gangsterism whipping justice policy
maintain dignity captive
inaction to prevent the thought.” (ibid)

the collection saw the landscape Audible has extensive poems related to political consciousness in which the poet moans and reflects the current situation of the nation and its people. For example, the first poem reflects the servile mindset of people who are willing to suffer without a sigh. The nation has become cowardly and disease is beyond treatment. The poet says:

«slavery slaves of self are
happy ghosts-driven». (TO 9)

and adds:

“when slavery is beloved as a rhetoric to survive
not representation Cervants and useless Dostoevsky
Conceits of cowards need no therapist
or freedom a Marx or revive a Gandhi.” (p.9)
which reflects our this predicament:
“a prisoner is more free than those
has no freedom even to dream.” (ibid)

almost the same tone is continued in the following poem ‘ the walls of the prison House remain ‘. Bhatnagar writes:

“we have broken the chains of Slavery
remain prisonhouse walls.» (TO 10)

the following excerpt from the poem reflects the plight of Indians:

“our despair is not because there
is less revolution
but few changes”. (ibid)

o
“now are looking for leaders to follow God
to send us his grace:
we feel afraid to say the truth
and resisting what is unfair
All filthy and corrupt in our bones.” (ibid)

what fun is that we have taken phrases from reality forget all resistance and protest. Bhatnagar, says:
“caged too long in slavery
we have developed as circus Lions
unable to freedom in the emotions
developed in our own prisonwalls.” (. A.L. p.11)

the third poem in the volume ‘ can made be destroyed by Ideas, highlights the reality that can not be destroyed by the ideas of the so-called policy of cat can not play the game of hide and seek for a long time. The poet writes:

“a”yer were the dreams of tomorrow
today are the memories of the past-
villages to replace sky:

homeless resting in villas:
morality to be as strong as mountains:
hungry for power at the Taj-
all this is history now
policy that enriched the country with such long poverty.” (TO 12)

the poet concludes by saying:

“Poets even now are tired of dreams
strangled as Caligula to exit
lets fight reviving to offset the loss of material of art turned
hostile to art.” (ibid)

in this collection there are poems as ‘Still questions’, ‘The new morality ‘,’ the second coming’, ‘ to see Rashtrapati Bhavan’, ‘Larger displacement’, ‘Space’ and ‘Second conversion’ in which the poet says blades and weaknesses of our character and presents the snapshot of the suffering humanity and enjoying a nude life modern Bhatnagar attempts to reform the present scenario and motivates us to fight against injustice and humiliation.

the ultimate collection of cooling the flames of darkness (2001) also has a number of poems of political interest that highlights the poem ‘ the Janus political front ‘. The poet starts saying:

“that says takes it yellow sweat and suffering
to become a leader in these fruitful days!

with more charm disadvantages
way placement day dreams by faldage
misleading drawings of fain hope is China with all the imperfections
charm the unequal innocent
. (CFD, 17)

face farce of the India policy and politicians called Shams are sketched by the poet as well. Bhatnagar urges us:

“so, watch a hijacker of green seasoned hardcore bandolero

intelligent murderer of A: a smuggler of high-fi
a high mobile scamster
talk glib television
or dictate its undercover becomes
people twice besieged
him voting power with the
option forcing their way to a travesty of democracy.” (CFD, 18)

the poem ‘Devastated by children of civilized time’ shows almost all external conflicts in the world where people of modern times is more pleased in cancerous violence, sins and crimes being something ‘ on-line fiction Bestsellers: / Blow up the media to view on the internet’. Politicians are like Cassius Shakuni are fixing distant personal energy Park designs and are ‘get off your nebulous dreams’. According to him, politicians will never let the world change in its former glory. Says:

“are stricken civilized times-
our spirits limps have their own unnerving truth:

philosophers, physiologists, and politicians on one side
all Fireworks end for his glory in ashes:
and the waters are empty
through all the gashes of the mountain.” And
Howsoever much innocence can stand the test
by fire and water:
violence will never lose its shine
the evils of innocence cold surrender.

can be return to the tenderness of heart
lies through bestiality, faxed around the world
unchanged text on their authenticity. “(CFD, 14)

Similarly, in ‘The primitive age’, the poet imagines the more mishappenings of overgrowth of the ghost of the dirty politics and the ghasty:

” come one, come all come from hyenas or wolves

the roots inlaid naturally compel
power trampled to fresh shoot
and survive the weed grizzly
in a new grace of its ancient rooms
civilized Tesing in their

much biting “” teeth.” (CFD, 16)

looking for in my solitude the poet tries to relieve himself of the agony of the time, but finds solace in nowhere and says:

“philosophy, music for the agony of the
or
poetry can only half – persuade good taste
to savor the taste of loneliness
in good taste and confidence” “:
for the best bitter can convert
only bite less not sweeter still.” (CFD, 36)

as well, from previous narration it became clear that the poetry of Bhatnagar is free of all movements of left or right or has anything to do with any particular school of thought or ideology but a representation of reality crystal-clearly and narration of the truth in painting and live. The religion of Bhatnagar poetry is love and peace. His poetic credo is essentially human and good. Seems to be a real advocate of simplicity when he says:

“poetry in all its glory is a clear and a simplified version of the complex and the confused, because there is nothing more transcidental beyond the creative simplicity of poetry. Poetry wins not by his snobbishness, but by its simplicity. Simple poetry is the poetry of togetherness. If more India people to read poetry in English must obtain common and accessible and connected with the life of concerns human times of mere words, animals, maidens and sex.” (FD, 122)

therefore, we can say that Bhatnagar has tried politics as a metaphor in his poetry and his poetry has been established as the Bugle of awakening in the current atmosphere of political darkness.

References:

oa. N. Dwevedi (ed.), contemporary English Verse Indo. Bareilly: Prakash Depot.1998 book.

oV. K. Singh. Critical evaluation of the poetry of O. P. Bhatnagar – to ‘Results from the political and economic life’. Under the supervision of Dr. T.. K. Ramchandran, sent to the Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, 1992
oR.C. Sharma and Dolly Oswal, «of O. P. Bhatnagar treatment of policy», Journal of the University of Agra’s research. Vol.xxx, PT. 1, I Jan.1982
. C. bose, the vision and the voice. Vol.2, Ed. G. P. Baghmar, Nagpur; Publications of Vishwa Bharti. (Abbreviated as V. V).
oO
. P Bhatnagar(ed,) lifting columns – some Indian poets in English.Amravati; Kala Prakashan.

or – thought Poems.Aligarh: Lark publications. 1976, (abbreviated as TP in the text)
or – feeling of fossils. New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan, (abbreviated as FF in the text)
or – removal angle. New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan, (abbreviated as AR in the text)
or – Oneric visions. Jaipur: Rachna Prakashan, (abbreviated as OV in the text)
or – shadows and projectors. Aligarh: Publications lark. (Abbreviated as SF in the text)

or – Audible landscape. Aligarh: Publications lark. (Abbreviated as in the text)

or – cooling the flames of darkness. New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan., 2001 (abbreviated as CFD in the text)
or – future directions Indian poetry in English Jaipur: Rachna Prakashan, (abbreviated as FD in the text)


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Tennyson’s Treatment of Nature in His Poems

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Alfred Tennyson is a notable poet of the Victorian age who also studied nature with detail detail and accuracy of observation. Although Tennyson handles nature in his poems, but he may not acquire prominence as Wordsworth and Keats as a poet of nature. Wordsworth explores the meaning spiritual in nature while treating Keats of nature is purely sensual but Tennyson has drawn and colored the naturaleza-fotos with the conscious pictorial care of the artist. Tennyson create with Coleridge to interpret the mood of nature according to our mood, and that nature is happy or not. On the nature of the Romantic movement is regarded as a phenomenon that one could turn to guidance, spiritual sustenance and mental restoration. Tennyson belief often led him to describe and develop a human being in terms of natural phenomena. For example, in “Lotus eaters the” indolence of the sailor is made with reference to the pause of the streams, persistent Sun, precipitation of the languid air, etc.

Tennyson, Browning, and Arnold lost a universal enthusiasm for nature as the romantic poets. In the majority of cases the influence of nature was in sound and healthy, and symptomatic of the spiritual unity of the universe. The Victorians were not able to maintain the confidence and optimistic as possible for the romantics. On the one hand, as we will see, science humor a love of nature in any way as intense, as everything that one can recognize in earlier centuries, but on the other hand, with an emphasis on mechanical and chemical aspects of natural process, looking magic and not leaving room for spiritual direction. However now we can channel the poems of Tennyson where takes great interest in nature. “However” is one of the poem more outstanding that serves vast evidence of great interest and love for the nature of Tennyson. In this poem there is calm and quiet tomorrow with them leaves discolored, gossamers silver, the overcrowding of them farms ambrosia, Sycamore imposing, bats was in heaven fragrant, them trees put their arms dark on the field, the grey Orange old, the solo field, the boat climb the wind etc. them pictures of the nature in this poem would give pleasure and pain , because the poet shows that light of the Moon not only falls on the bed of the poet, but also in the tomb of friends dead in the Church. Often natural objects evoke a feeling of sadness rather than joy because they highlight human morality. In a famous passage (85) for example, the traditional procession of nature highlights human pain.

review “in spite” Charles Kingsley found that the idea of the root of all poetry idea of “dignity of nature” in all its manifestations of his generation. The description of the nature of this poem gives us the idea that plays an important role in the emotional development of the poem. In this poem Tennyson does not seek any associative principle which could be made a permanent reference in nature. However the poem of Tennyson “Ooeone” begins with the description of a valley in the Ida where steam of swimming is drag of pine to pine. On both sides of the stream are shelves in flower-rich meadows and lawns. Far below them roars along Brook, falling into cataract after falls to the sea. Back Valley is the highest peak of Gargarus:

“… the ravine of clover ‘ n
in waterfall after waterfall sea.”

behind the Gargarus upper Valley. “

the subject of this poem is concentrated by the unhappy experience of”Oeone”when she is being abandoned by her husband Paris.” Addressing the mother IDA and deal with land, hills, caves, and mountain streams, Oeone began to tell their sad story in the song. Also the poem “Tithonus” begins by the description of nature as “the decay of wood, wood decay and fall.” In this poem is the cry of the steam and the description of the death of the Swan after many summers. The poet describes the gradual onset of dawn in the person of Aurora. His kisses have a rich sensual shower Aurora image at the mouth of Tithonus, eyelids, kisses that were “blown sprouts medio-apertura of April”.

the study of nature in Victorian poetry is inextricably linked with the study of religion and science, since the revolution that took place in the religious and scientific thought inevitably had a direct effect and attitude towards nature. Nature must always loom large in any study of Victorian poetry, because it was one of the most important poetic subjects three or four. Foundation success of Tennyson poems nature serves as one of the basic functions. In “The Lotus eaters” the landscape and the landscape are symbolic of feelings of the sailors. Description of wide naturaleza-cuadros as a sunset, Crimson light of the setting sun, snow peaks, leaf, Apple and flower grow, ripen and fall silently. In fact, nature, as the inhabitants of this island has eaten of indolent oblivion of Lotus fruit. “Locksley Hall” the poet addresses the nostalgic feeling for expressing natural images. The poet used to roam the sea and saw the great Orion and Pleiades at night through the window. In short, we cannot regard to Tennyson as the romantic poets as a poet of nature, but we see that you certainly nature by his close scientific and meticulous observation. He often anticipates the nature to describe and develop the human being in general.


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Keki N Daruwalla: The Poet and Novelist

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KEKI N. DARUWALLA: POET and NOVELIST by ASHA VISWAS. New Delhi: Bahri publications, 2011. 173 pp., Rs. 500 /-, ISBN 978-81-909771-3-5

Keki N. Daruwalla, who has been writing for more than four decades, is a leading name in English poetry Indiana today (p. 31). The uniqueness of his poems has been recognized by critics and fans everywhere. There have been several books about his poetry, original and edited, images, diction, design and point of view, but the last of them by Asha Viswas, dedicated to their students, should be very useful to students and teachers alike.

Viswas Professor, herself a good poet with three volumes of poetry to his credit, is Daruwalla on the same pedestal as Nissim Ezekiel and Jayanta Mahapatra, and he finds a voice more representative than Jayanta Mahapatra and others. I am totally in accordance with it.

Asha considered the nine volumes of poetry and a novel by Keki and appreciates the variety that shows both in form and content (p 34). She also discovers that Keki writes with control over emotions and effectively uses techniques such as the game of words, irony and satire (pp 75-76). She reflects on theme canvas of the poet as inherent to their personal experiences as also its concern by realities often contradictory of indigenous life, diversity of cultural, historical and mythical landscapes and existential realities. To quote Bruce King, Keki Daruwalla write tough poetry with awareness of the “moral ambiguities and irresolvable conflicts of the human condition”.

introductory chapter of Professsor Viswas seeks to define and highlight the modernity and the Indianness of Keki, in addition to its “depth of feeling, economy of language and originality of vision” (cf pp 13-17) conferred upon him “a central place in the modern Indian English poetry.”

in the second chapter, ‘You moorings’, she examines personal life vis-à-vis of the poet the growth of his poetic career since the 1960’s. It is based on his interview with the poet to develop the chapter in addition to reviewing the comments of all her collections, two books of short stories, a novel and an anthology, two decades of Indian poetry: 1960-80. She underlines the poet global perspective, experiences and interests.

in the third chapter, ‘Treatment of the myth in the early poetry of Keki,’ refers to his legendary poems (five in low Orion, thirteen, four in appearance in April at the junction of the rivers) to demonstrate the mind seeks the poet, attitude impetus and eclectic vision. Professor Viswas also uses the techniques of stylistic analysis to interpret some of the early poems of Keki.

the fourth chapter intends to publicize the modernity of the poet, not a moral approach, realism, concern existential, lack of faith in the system and the avoidance of «common response» and «abstract notion». She observes: «»his satire and his iconoclastic approach invigorated its theme as does the speed of his verse and male force. (p. 76)

a discussion of the critical poet in the poems on landscape (ch. 5) intends to show “Maturity of vision” Keki that transmutes the “outside world” in the internal sense (p. 78) and helps you achieve inner peace (p. 81). ASHA Viswas found in the collection “a perfect harmony between impression and expression” to the Sanskrit poets (p 90).

the sixth chapter is a critique of a summer of tigers that provides instances of passion and irony (pp 94-98). With his abilities in stylistic analysis, Asha Viswas tries to highlight the poet “exploration and experimentation” (pp 95, 104) and its sensitivity for “rhythms of speech and its syntactic characteristics and lexical” (pp 98, 114) on the one hand and his love of mythology and the “racial history of the” (pp 99, 102, 111) and its criticism of Pablo Neruda (pp 110-11) , on the other. As points out: “his poetry is better on the mountains, tall grass, seas and rivers. Their attachment to the ritual scene giving Keki is a shot in the poetic vein “. (p. 112)

the seventh chapter deals with the River at night, a “global job” (p. 116). While the search for the poet to stay in landscapes brings you to the world of nature, in the River at night “changes its path of nature to human imagination” (p. 115). Asha Viswas here as Keki Orfeo and down in “the darkest depths of what we call the subconscious and unconscious”. She seems as Daruwalla himself admits that he has here tried diving into the “depths of consciousness and loneliness” (p. 117) which is, in fact, “a defense against time, decay and death” (p. 127). She also discusses some of his sueno-poemas (pp 118-121) and the isla-poemas (pp 125-26) in the volume.

the eighth chapter concerns ninth collection of Keki, the cartographer, registering your trip “both inside and outside.” Here one finds instances of the “subjective and physical, individual and universal fusion in…” (w) a awareness integrated “(p. 128).” ASHA praises his craft in the fusion of history, peoples, nature, religion, biography and vision in “intense reflection” and poetry ‘ speaking outside the still Center of being, the narrative and dramatic voice ‘ (p. 159). Analytical reviews on pp 140-158 should help every serious student to follow Daruwalla poetry in the right spirit.

the last chapter talks about historical novel of Daruwalla pepper and Christ (2009) presenting “a dialectical discourse of clash of interests in the backdrop of trade and religion (p. 161).

the bibliography at the end reflects the years of work that Viswas Professor has created to write the book, taking into account the needs of students both honours and postgraduate researchers and teachers interested in Indian English writing. It is a positive contribution of a teacher of poet see Keki N. Daruwalla with imagination and critical empathy.


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